Monday, September 30, 2019

Frictions between Parents and Children Essay

Family is an essential part of every person’s life and of our society. Family is a little world with its own values and priorities. Close families share dreams, ideas, hopes and even possessions, and it’s a good side of being a family. However, as usual, every good thing can have its drawbacks. Same with families: they can often have different types of problems. One of the most frequent and common problems is the misunderstanding between parents and children, due to the difference of generations. This problem is especially acute with teenagers, who want to have more freedom, to express their self-identity in a way they want to. â€Å"Honour your mother and father and you will live long and be well, if not, you will die† — says the Bible. Some families are happy, some are dead. It seems to me the reason is misunderstanding of each other in the family. One more thing, teenagers can take on most of the rights and responsibilities of adulthood. Before this occurs, however, they go through the period of adolescence and most of them experience conflicts at that time. They change rapidly both physically and emotionally and they search self-identity as they grow up and become more independent. Sometimes teenagers develop interests and values different from those of their parents. That sets a conflict between two generations, which leads to a gap in mutual understanding. Traditional disagreements are: the time to come home at night, doing work about the house and the friends to spend time with. I’d like to point out, that teens face a number of problems: drinking alcohol or using drugs. Moreover, some children run away from their homes. Most of them return after a few days or weeks, but some turn to crime and become juvenile delinquents. I’m convinced that sometimes parents do not care about their children. It is exactly at that age when young people need a piece of advice or help. Parents should help their children and find the right approach to them so as to make everything clear. Being able to view the problems more rationally, they should try to do their best to resolve them. We need to learn to talk our problems over in our family. If we are able to do it, everything will be all right.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

The old man and the sea by Earnest Hemmingway, alternate ending

He took all his pain and what was left of his strength and his long gone pride and he put it against the fishes agony and the fish came over to his side and swam gently on his side, his bill almost touching the planking of the skiff, and started to pass the boat, long, deep, wide, silver and barred with purple and interminable in the water. The old man dropped the line and put his foot on it and lifted he harpoon high and drove it down with all his remaining strength. He watched as it passed straight through the side of the great fish, staining the deep blue waters red, leaving swirls of maroon in its wake, little ghost fish sent to mock me he thought. The great fish swam away with the little rope going straight through the flesh near the base of its tail. ‘I feel your pain' the old man spoke out loud to the fish. The harpoon must be jammed against his side and unable to come back through, he thought. Oh great fish, fine friend, what an ignoble end this will give, why this is worse than bone spurs, it must be. The pressure against his shoulders had lessened, the acute pain from the line cutting his right hand eased. ‘So, I have no strength left you, have beaten me worthy adversary, but to do so you will die a long drawn out slow death, like a criminal chained to another' The words hurt his dry lips increasing the depth of the furrows in the flesh. ‘I will not bring you in like this' he spoke again to the marlin, not after all that we have been through, he thought, no I will not shame either of us like this. If the fish managed to free itself before he could untie the rope from the bitt the resulting hole left behind would equivalent to a feast for two families. His head was getting fuzzy again, but the thought to free the fish remained strong. ‘I will cut you loose' he said ‘yes I have my knife, I will make both my hands work for this'. He took his knife and sawed at the rope, back and forth, back and forth cutting it with the rhythm of the waves. He used his left hand to press down on top of the other as much as it would allow him to. After what felt like an age he broke right through the rope, as the last few strands were severed, his left hand cramped again causing him to drop his knife into the vast waters. But the rope was cleaved in two, he had freed his adversary. He rested then, dipping his hands one at a time in the healing cleansing salty sea. Taking time to recover from his efforts, the pressure of the line a constant ache across his shoulders, he pondered the repercussions of sailing the skiff so far out. I shouldn't have gone out so far fish, he thought, aloud he said ‘I'm sorry'. As he continued to ponder the wiseness of the distance his head started to clear. The loss of his knife playing on his mind. ‘Oh why am I so stupid?' he whispered in a harsh tone. Of course he thought to himself, ESTUPIDO! He silently cursed his foolishness. It was my head, it was unclear, the flying fish I ate was long ago. Why didn't I just untie the rope from the bitt? Why did I cut it? How much energy did I waste sawing? My knife, my knife, it would be here if I had not been so stupid, the thoughts wound around and around his head. ‘Oh great fish I bet you'd of never committed such a stupid act' He said to the moving fin of the fish. The great fish carried on swimming, slowly but steadily, the phosphorescent trails of its blood faint now, almost gone. The marlin had slowed, the old man noticed, he thought the lack of food must be taking its toll on him as well by now. He must get some rest, even the great DiMaggio must rest sometimes, even before the bone spurs he must have worn himself out, he must have tired and wanted, no, longed for rest. Longed for rest, just like he did. I bet the wonderful DiMaggio's' father the great fisherman would understand, he said to himself, he must of fought some great battles on the sea, to be able to pass on the great wisdom help Joe to be so great. Just a few minutes rest, even a few minutes would be good he didn't want to get confused again. Yes he would rest, and then try to catch a fish, a flying fish that would be good; they taste nice even without salt or lime. But first he would rest. He was disturbed about 15 minutes later. By a tugging on his right hand, an increased pressure cutting into his shoulder blades. The fish was turning! He had started circling; he was on the path to the fisherman's hands now. He adjusted the line drawing it in slowly, he didn't want to break it. ‘I must be gentle, I must be smooth,' he thought, ‘I can be tricky, I can be clever, I won't let the line snag.' He knew that any sudden tugging on the line could tear the hook from its slender hold in the marlins mouth. The fish had circled nearly 360à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ it had taken what seemed like a lifetime to the old man. All the while slowly and carefully drawing the thick line through his useless almost lifeless left hand, across his martyred back and then through his right hand, his strong hand. ‘Gentle, I can be gentle, I can be crafty, wily, I am a great fisherman, like father DiMaggio, come to me, my friend, my equal, come to me I am experienced, it will be sure and swift.' He chanted to the fish. The fish carried on its slow turn all the while, in perfect ignorance of what the old man was telling it. It continued its circle until it had turned another half, and straightened out all the time swimming steadily. ‘You tease me' he said to the marlin ‘you do not think of me as worthy, I can best you I am not dead yet.' He settled into the salty planks of the skiff, resting his back but careful of the line running across it. I will rest for a while he thought to himself, then I will try to get a fish. After taking a few sips from his water bottle he felt for the excess coil securing it on his toe, and closed his eyes. The world started spinning, he opened his eyes a feeling of nausea rising in this throat. I am so tired he thought to him self, so tired and weak he closed his eyes again swallowing down the bile that was threatening to come out. Trembling he tried to rest, many minutes passed before the compulsive swallowing stopped and his breathing steadied. He dreamt of the lions on the beach again, but it was different this time. The lions came not to gamble and play, but sat quietly and still on the sand, almost as though they were waiting for something. It was dark again when he awoke, the tendrils of fog dancing and swaying in the moon beams. It took him a few moments to adjust to being awake. He thought for a while that he was in his shack, lying comfy and cosy on his bed of newspapers. Then the pressure of the line filtered through his hazy thoughts. I am in my boat, I am fishing, then the realisation of his fight to snare the marlin rushed towards the surface. ‘the fish!' he croaked jumped up, his head spinning around to locate the fish, when he saw it swimming along unconcerned at the private battle aboard the skiff, the relief that washed over him was like a healing balm, a balm that melted away as he fumbled for the line realising that it had slipped from his shoulders. His cold and sleepy hands nearly dropped the line, but he managed to flounder around until his right hand grappled and gripped at the line, then his slower left hand finally found purchase and finished the job of adjusting the line so it was snug against his shoulder blades. He gazed around at the stars realising that he was heading in the direction of home. Well my fine friend, we best end this soon or the waters will get too shallow, and you will scrape your fine scales, he chuckled silently casting his gaze around searching for his fish. He had surfaced again in the night; it must be getting close to an ending the old man thought. It'll soon be time for the home run, where's that water; he reached over feeling for his bottle. Sipping slowly Santiago glimpsed a shape moving around the skiff. ‘What's that?' he started, more quietly now he said, ‘that's a snub nose, no, no there are two' he said as he spotted a second fin gliding towards the boat. The circled the boat coming at it from different directions, then one changed course heading towards the fish. He must be leaving blood trails calling out to the shark, diner time come and get me, thought the old man. As the snub nose headed towards the fish the old man started beating the surface of the water with an oar. He screamed at them in a cracked and wasted voice ‘here you bastardos, here, leave him alone, you are nothing but unworthy scavengers, brainless useless scum' he continued to beat the ocean erratically , splashing and churning up the expanse of blue, making it turn to darker and lighter blues, vermilions and a lilac that was reminiscent of the marlins stripes. ‘He's mine' he screamed at the sharks. One of the came close to the boat, he could see it cold, pitiless eyes. Gathering what little strength he had he lifted the oar above his head, cursing his decrepit left hand, as he brought the oar down in a solid blow between its eyes. The shark twitched violently lunging at the oar, snapping the blade with his fearsome teeth. Santiago twisted the shards round and managed to pierce an eye. He watched the shark back off. You are no match for me, he thought, even the boy, as green as he still is could beat you. He continued to beat the water but in a gesture of triumph now, ‘get lost, get lost you scum' he shouted as he thrashed his hands around in the water. ‘You won't have my fish, it's not for you!' Suddenly he felt a searing, burning pain, then a wave of blackness threatened to overcome him, but some basic animal instinct took over and he shook his head clearing it. The pain took over again then. What is this, what is happening? He thought to himself, feeling strangely detached from the excruciating pain. I have been bitten, ‘I have been bitten!' he shouted in shock, ‘the shark has bitten me' he said in a quieter weaker voice, as he saw the partner to the shark he had hit gliding away. He must have sneaked in behind me, he thought getting groggy by now, they were jealous of my fish, my fish that fly's, my fantastic friend. He was swaying but not in time with the ocean now. The old man crumbled gently to the deck of the skiff. Flee, fly my friend, he mumbled as the dark fog enclosed him. The fish carried on smoothly through the water, appearing impervious to the wound it had sustained. Manolin was on the beach early, as he had been every day since the old man had been gone. When his father had mentioned it to him, whilst complaining that he boy was half asleep when fishing, Manolin had replied I will look for him, I will wait for him, I will not abandon him for I believe in him. As the boy gazes out to see he spots a deeper shadow in the sea, what is that? He thinks squinting his eyes, trying to see clearer. It is to far to be sure but he knows that it is Santiago, returning home. ‘Pedrico! Pedrico, it is Santiago, he is returning home, his luck has turned!' he shouted down the beach, thinking to himself, I hope his luck has returned, I so want him to be coming back with a good catch. It is not right that he should have such bad luck; he will not be able to take much more. Meanwhile Pedrico had gathered more of the locals, they were making their way to the edge of the sand. Chattering and gossiping amongst themselves. The boat was close enough now to be sure that it was a skiff, but what was that in front of it? ‘My god it's a fish', ‘no, it's a shark', ‘it's not real, it's a demon' ‘a fish?', ‘it's unnatural' were some of the mutterings that could be heard from the crowd. The boy just stood with his mouth slightly open and a waxen hue to his face. It was closer now they could see without a shadow of a doubt, that it was a huge fish in front of the skiff pulling it along, in fact even those that were slow to believe were starting to realise it was a marlin. The boy started shaking and crying as it got closer and closer, he could hear the intakes of breaths and gasps from the crowd next to him fade into to silence as they all realised that the fish was not going to stop. Manolin wasn't sure what or even how he was feeling, he had never encountered a situation like this, and it was way beyond anything his emotions had ever strived to cope with before, let alone made sense of. The whole beach waited agog as the fish reached the edge of the sand still towing the skiff behind. It seemed to him the only two sounds in the world were the beating of his heart hammering in his ears and the unusually grating sound of the waves breaking on the shore. He tensed as the fish drove himself on to the unnatural environment of the sandy shore; pushing and pushing its ravaged body until it was well and truly grounded. Before the crowd had recovered enough from the shocking spectacle unfolding in front of them to move, the boy had waded out to the small boat, a true fisherman now perhaps, as even under the strain of what had transpired, a part of his mind noticed and admired the sheer size of the marlin. The crowd had just began to recover from their collective stupor enough to move when a howling keening sound arose from the boys mouth, ‘NOoooooooooooooo. He can't die, not now look at his catch, SANTIAGO†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..Santiago' The boy trailed off into a soft whimper, shrugging off the hands that appeared to try and pat him with gestures of comfort. Then he jumped up suddenly shouting ‘get off, GET OFF! GET OFF!' as he started to dash towards the fish he pushed the onlookers out of the way, and rounding on a pair of fishermen that had been about to club the fish and screeched ‘ NO!' He drew a ragged breath before he carried on, ‘don't you see Santiago has brought his catch home?' the men nodded shocked. ‘Well don't you think that is a special fish, leading him home? If fact grounding itself in the process' before they could reply he continued ‘well, don't you think that they must of shared spirits, two so brave and clever, despite bad luck?' with that he turned to the most superstitious member of the village and said ‘that is right isn't, it that's what the old stories tell us?' The old man stared at the boy for a second then said ‘yes they will have shared courage therefore their spirits would have mingled' in a slow and halting voice, then stronger ‘yes he is right! This great marlin, noble marlin is as Santiago' The boy turned back towards the fish, ‘then we have to save this fish, we should revere such a miracle not haste its passing. Would you club Santiago's body if it were that in front of you? The crowd denied this as a group; hurt a member of their community? Never. Right said the boy in a more confident tone ‘lets get him to the water, come on, I cant move him on my own' the others started to help, all the while encouraged by the boy who was not a boy anymore ‘gently, careful now' ‘look at that wound, it is very bad, but one as strong as this will heal' silently to himself, he prayed that it would heal. They got the fish to the water before they noticed the hole in its lip where the hook had finally ripped away. The boy checked the unnaturally still fish over for ropes, lines and hooks then trying to get a quick look to assess the condition of the fish. All the while the fish stayed still. The boy whispered ‘goodbye, and thank you, Joe DiMaggio rules' The fish turned its kingly head towards the boy, and with the flick of a tale was gone, going beneath the surface as soon as it could. The crowd thinned until it was just the boy watching, alone, his eyes all bleary from unshed tears; just as he turned he thought he saw the glistening body of the majestic fish leaping through the air. But when he turned back to see clearer, there was nothing there.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Native Americans in the United States and Pocahontas Life Essay

This book was the bases and the most informative piece I have seen on a review of Pocahontas life in my perspective. Pocahontas life is a difficult piece of history to analysis for the fact that her life is only denoted by other persons of history writings. She has no known piece of writing of her own so all knowledge is personal based of outside parties. This makes it for sometimes difficult to truly believe everything for many of the views were from white men during a time period where they had not seen many females weren’t around. I believe the author thesis of the book for the Pocahontas part was her involvement with the English and her growth throughout her life. The other thesis of the book from the Powhatan side was there involvement with the English as well and there plan to use the culture but at the same time push them away. Within the first five chapter of Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma it gives you a base review of history. This first part of the book it explains the culture of the Powhatan and how they are laid out. At this point in the book within the first chapter we find out that Pocahontas is only 9 years of age and her mother is nowhere to be found, but her father is Powhatan the chief of many native people and villages. It talks about the arrival of English in 1603 and we learn that many ships have come before us truly being to talk about John Smith and Jamestown. It also mention the arrival of Don Luis and the Spanish, but doesn’t get into much detail he just seems to pop up with the first few chapters her and there. We learn that Pocahontas name means â€Å"mischief† or the â€Å"little playful one. † The author tells us that the native were not completely different from the Europeans just simply behind the times. We also learn that within the native culture of the Powhatan that there chiefs do not come from the next up son, but from marriage of the daughters. We also learn that the Europeans felt that the women of the tribes need to be saved due to their work in the fields and other jobs around the village. It speaks of the native’s religion of their belief in spirits within everything. John Smith comes into play in 1606 when the English begin to prepare for the Virginia campaign. What I learn from John Smith was that he was a captain that has been captured a lot and has numerous stories of being saved by women that fall lustful in love with. As kids watching films and stories we are told of Pocahontas is her and John Smith fall in love, but at the time of them meeting Pocahontas would’ve been ten years of age. The plans of the English and John Smith was to: improve native culture, use the land properly, get there before the Spanish, and bring English enlighten, and a place to send the unemployed English. One of the main fears that I read about in the reading was the fear of the English to become like the Indians. The term we learned in class for this is recolonization. After the landing John Smith gets taken by the Powhatan and convince them not to kill him by way of trade. He promises them weapons which out of smarts gives them a cannon which cannot be moved. Both the native and the English realize the need of each. Without one another the English could not survive without food and the natives want weapons or easier put there technology. Over time many English were sent to live with natives to learn their culture and a native would be sent with the English. The most notable was Pocahontas herself was sent with the English to learn their language and lifestyle. The book talks of Pocahontas marriage first to a native warrior, but it fails to mention what happens to him. She later marries John Rolfe an English man who experience much of the reverse colonization. Before her marriage though Pocahontas was kidnapped one of the main characters they looked over her kidnapping was Sir Thomas Dale who was the first Marshall of Virginia. Pocahontas would declare herself a Christian in 1616 and then start her life with John. They would build a log on the land John was granted from the Virginia Company. They would have two children together in their lifetime. Shortly after being settled in there Pocahontas would go to London and experience true English culture. Pocahontas would become very ill around the time the Rolfe family was ready to head back to Virginia. Pocahontas died on March 21, 1617 in the Rolfe inn. What I learned from this book that for someone of her time period and of native culture Pocahontas got to see much more than any Native American of her time period for sure. I learned that much of what we were taught or told of her in are childhood was wrong. I learned that john smith stories could not be trusted. The feeling I receive as well is Pocahontas rejected her culture and tribe, but in return was probably rejected in a way due to her mother situation. Though she might have be royal in a way just from some of the information I read. The book was good though and I enjoyed the insist of Pocahontas life.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Does Insolvency Law Need Reform Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Does Insolvency Law Need Reform - Essay Example This method is considered by many as outdated. Over the previous few years, laws have been enacted that are aimed at reforming insolvency laws in some of these countries such as the U.K., Germany, and France1. This essay looks at and analyzes some of those proposals, enactments, consultation reports, and reviews as regards to the insolvency law so as to ascertain whether this law is fit for the purpose as it currently is. In so doing, measures will be solidly detailed that are meant to offer struggling, but feasibly viable ventures a chance of working their way out of such difficult situations. Discussion The promotion of company rescue customs began with the work of the Cork committee which recommended disposal and continuation of a debtor’s business as a going concern and was bolstered by the Insolvency Act, 1986 which recommended administrative take-up through procedures outlined in the Administration and Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA). Subsequently, there have been in creasing outcries from different quarters regarding the inability of this act to ensure successful administrative receivership without causing unnecessary closure of otherwise viable companies. In addition, questions have been asked of whether administrative receivership provides for acceptable and better levels of accountability and transparency to all the stakeholders in the said business, most importantly, creditors. For these reasons, the U.K. government embarked on putting into place mechanisms that will not only ensure successful administrative receiverships, but also the balance of the insolvency law to be debtor-friendly and creditor friendly. Most of these law reviews, consultations, and proposals have aimed at exploring ways in which the government have attempted and should attempt to better develop the insolvency law and practice so that where company rescue attempts are made, all those with a stake in the company being rescue, benefit from such a process. This ensures th at economic and fiscally viable companies survive in the long-run. Creditors are also guaranteed higher and better returns. The challenge, however, is whether the balance in the insolvency regime of the U.K. should be shifted to being debtor- friendly as well rather than being only creditor-friendly. In 2002, the U.K. government enacted the Enterprise Act of 2002 which was the advent of a new corporate insolvency law regime. This was entirely bolstered by the consideration by many that the then insolvency law era was not equitable and adequately rescue-oriented. In order to change that, the Enterprise Act of 2002 implements several modifications and changes to that era. According to the UK Secretary of State, Trade and Industry, Patricia Hewitt, the enterprise act of 2002 will empower consumers and strengthen competition through radical reforms of the law of competition, corporate rescue and bankruptcy. At the same time, new safeguards for consumers will be promoted. According to th e Enterprise Act, 2002, several measures aimed at reforming and restructuring corporate insolvency were introduced. These included an administration procedure that is streamlined in a way that it could be accessible and efficient so as to ensure successful rescue of viable ventures. Secondly, the administrative receivership is abolished to a certain extent2. Finally, the act also introduced measures that would ensure

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Managing Professional Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Managing Professional Development - Essay Example When my applications work out in my favor, then I become grateful for my learning and am encouraged to learn some more. With learning should come reflection. According to Osterman (1990), â€Å"reflection is the essential part of the learning process because it results in making sense of or extracting meaning from the experience†. One should not just go through life as if everything comes as second nature. We need to think critically if what we are doing is truly meaningful and relevant or if we are just wasting our time on something insignificant. I constantly seek knowledge through work activities, workshops, lectures, various experiences, mentoring and training. Making sense of problems and searching for patterns to figure out solutions are completed by reviewing feedback I gather not only from research but from people around me. When I am deep in thought, I reflect on the tools I have – my ideas, opinions, experiences – everything from my own perspective, and try to identify the thinking processes I engaged in. If I allow myself to be analytical, I would put my personal perspectives on an objective frame of mind and critique it, rotate the ideas in my head inside-out to see if there are strong possibilities for solutions. I might even find new information there, when some old ideas are merged. I try to also become an instrument of learning for others when I share my experiences with them. I cannot see myself teaching them, as I know I have still a lot to learn, however when I share my experiences, I know they learn from me too. Now that I had to live independently away from the accessible guidance and support of my parents, I learned to... The purpose of this essay was to provide the reader with the opinions of the researcher on the topic of self-management and professional development. Undergoing the assignments for this course have been very enlightening for the researcher. The researcher can conclude that the exercises that were done have been essential in his journey in personal and professional development. The four-stage cycle of self- assessment, planning, doing and reviewing that was discussed in the essay is an effective way to truly stop and reflect on where one is at, where he is going and what he should do to get there. The researcher also states that he has learned many things about himself while doing several assignments of the course. Some of which the researcher had already knew, but needed to hear it from an objective source. It was summed up that the researcher knows how to extent his self-awareness now and states that the most amazing isue is that there is still more to discover about himself. The re searcher then mentiones that after completeing the course of self-development, he is going to continue growing and learning. To conclude, the essay expresses the opinion that the experiences and people that the researcher encounter all contribute to his journey and it is really up to him to see them as opportunities or threats. The researcher chooses to be more positive and embrace new learning that he can derive from such people and experiences as well as his own efforts to improve himself in all areas of his development.

Executive Leadership Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Executive Leadership - Dissertation Example The researcher is effective at team leadership and his team is performing based on Tuckman’s model. His conflict resolution style is collaborative and his spiritual leadership follows Fry’s causal model characterized as high in calling and membership, and correspondingly high in commitment and productivity. The researcher exhibited transactional leadership. The main goal of this researcher is to rev-up his skills and experiences towards transformational leadership, to facilitate his ultimate target of being a transformational coach. The leadership development plan was formulated in the light of the goals and desired outcomes set by this researcher. Table of Contents 1.0. Executive Summary 1 Table of Contents 2 2.0. Introduction 3 3.0. Reflective Self Assessment 4 3.1. Qualities of Leadership 4 3.2. Leadership Skills 5 3.3. Leadership Traits 11 3.4. Leadership Styles 12 3.5. Leader-led Relations 14 3.6. Organizational Politics and Power 14 3.7. Developing Leadership in O thers 15 3.8. Emotional Intelligence 15 3.9. Team Leadership 16 3.10. Conflict Resolution 18 3.11. Charismatic or Transformational Leadership 19 3.12. Spiritual Leadership 20 4.0. Leadership Development Plan 21 5.0. Bibliography 27 Leadership Style and Qualities Questionnaire (2011), viewed 14 April, 2011, 28 Mental Muscle Diagram Indicator [MMDI] (2011), Free online report: Christy Lewis, viewed 14 April, 2011, 28 6.0. Appendices 29 6.1. Leadership Style and Qualities Questionnaire and Results 29 6.2. 360-Degree Feedback Comparative Results for 2008 to 2011 30 6.3. Interpretation table for the strength of relationship coefficients 32 6.4. Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EIQ): Snapshot Report Screenshot 33 6.5. Output of Statistical Tests 34 6.6. Leadership Style Questionnaire (Essex, 2011) 40 6.7. Leadership Traits Questionnaire 42 6.8. Team Leadership Questionnaire 43 6.9. Conflict Resolution Questionnaire 47 6.10. Transformational Leadership Questionnaire 50 6.11. Spiritual Leadership Questionnaire 52 6.12. Methodology 54 2.0. Introduction â€Å"Leadership is the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for shared aspirations† (Kouzes & Posner, as cited in Thomas, 2006 p.158). The aforementioned definition of leadership demonstrates this researcher’s simple and all-encompassing vision as a business leader: â€Å"working with people towards our common targets which define our uncommon zeal to innovate and excel†. Hence, this researcher’s personal mission is to â€Å"hone my skills and expertise in order to mature from being a transformational leader to a transformational coach†. This paper is a self-reflection of how this mission can be animated to sustain the aforestated vision. Accordingly, the succeeding paragraphs shall acquaint the reader on the person behind the vision. This researcher is a strategic leader with ove r 15 years of meaningful experience at the management level. The

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

LinkedIn Profile building for a vacancy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

LinkedIn Profile building for a vacancy - Essay Example My experience in being a team leader has taught me the importance of understanding one’s audience when setting goals, tasks and understanding the needs of the client. I also possess excellent communication skills that are vital in virtual business communications that are key to business success. I also possess excellent drawing and design abilities, and have a long range of experience in developing prototypes. Working with teams have also equipped me with the necessary team contribution and team leadership experience that allows me to develop functional working units within all departments I head. My management style involves the selection of partners who not only match one’s ambition, but also his or her abilities allowing him or her to interact with the team members at the same pace. I hold a Bachelor’s Degree in Design from (x and y) University. I have been working with various design organizations for over 15 years. I am excellent with designing any prototype, despite how unrealistic it might conventionally seem. I also possess excellent research and analytical skills that could come in handy when dealing with large statistics. I have a yearning for growth and enjoy nurturing projects and organizations. Having worked with an international organization, I also possess the vital global strategy skills required in expanding the contemporary

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Mapp v. Ohio and Miranda v. Arizona Supreme Cases and their Effects on Assignment - 3

Mapp v. Ohio and Miranda v. Arizona Supreme Cases and their Effects on Interaction of Criminal Suspects and Law Enforcement Officers - Assignment Example Miranda vs. Arizona Miranda was arrested due to circumstantial evidence that accused him of kidnapping and raping an 18-year –old woman, 10 days before his arrest. He signed a statement pleading guilty of the offense without knowing his right to counsel. The supreme court of Arizona affirmed the court’s decision to admit the confession. However, Earl Warren, the chief justice ruled that due to the interrogation nature, where he was not informed of his rights by the police, such evidence of his confession could not be used against him, since he was not aware of his rights and hence, he had waived them (Brooks 177). From the Miranda vs. Arizona case, police advertisement of the rights of the criminal suspect before the start of questioning was brought about by the Miranda warning. The court has since reiterated the Miranda ruling that all case questioning must cease if a suspect in custody is being questioned when he has requested a lawyer. The 1992 Miranda rights have ef fectively been extended to US immigrants. Since then, illegal aliens who are arrested each year must read the Miranda warnings and be ready for their rights (Leo and George, 325). Legal officers have to arrest a suspect and listen to them without asking them questions while talking. On the other hand, police may question the suspect without the warnings of Miranda even in the confines of a police station. This is however only applicable when the police officer is questioning a person who is neither a suspect nor under arrest. Since all suspects must be read for their individual rights, the court has subsequently ruled that any waiver of the same rights must be voluntary, knowing and intelligent (Gerald 243). Mapp V. Ohio Prior to the 1960s, the United States Supreme Court only infrequently intruded on all criminal justice system’s operations at the local and state levels (Bloom 245). In 1961, Earl Warren, the chief justice of the supreme court made a decision about a case tha t forever changed the face of law enforcement in America (Brooks 12).        

Monday, September 23, 2019

Managerial Planning and Skills Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Managerial Planning and Skills - Assignment Example Therefore, a manager should be able to address all upcoming details in a clear and concise manner for better understanding by the junior staff members. Presentation of Information The manager has the ability to give the case personal mastery so that he can have a clear vision to what has been brought to him. This will help him get an understanding of the way to speak out the message and the format that he will use to deliver the information. The manager should apply the suspension judgment quality to ensure he has full control of over him/her self and end the ego of the position that he might be holding in the organization. In a matter where the manager is unable to comprehend over the matters that he has he has a room to identify assumptions that will give him the clearest assumption and this will be possible through dialogue (Gennard, 2009). Therefore, the manager should apply the management weapons so as to get the final ability to confront the staff and brief them on the news. Th erefore for the case of budget deduction the manager should take the initiative to go down and sit with the staff and deliberate first on the reasons that have led to the decline in the budget allocation. This will help the manager pass the information and help him make some decisions so as to handle the situation that has already aroused in the organization. ... Team work can lead an organization to a higher level of production that can help the organization try and cover up the five percent amount withdrawn from their yearly income. Staff Involvement The manager should totally involved the staff in decision making that will require good listening skills which will help the management focus on major options that they get from the dialogues (Gennard, 2009). This gives us the overview that in order the organization to grow and flourish again it has to return to starting board so that it can restart by laying down major or strategic plans that will enable the organization to shoot up again. This is a major step that the management has to reconsider so as to recover on the amount that has been reduced and run the organization smoothly. The manager should review the older budget so that he can restart by laying down the vision and mission of the organization. The manager should on look to the future results and objectives of the organization so t hat the management can develop actions that are to be carried in order to achieve the laid down objectives and goals. The re-laid plan should be followed and implemented within the time frame that it was meant to be accomplished. The manager should have a track record on the performance of every part of the organization so as access the progress of achieving the organization's objectives and goals (Bowhill, 2008). This will help in the evaluation of employee task force that will help the manager to have a wider over view of how the business of the organization is progressing. When there is frequent evaluation the management can notice the areas of weakness therefore, improving on them and thus propelling the organizational

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Examining Visual Identity of logo example Essay Example for Free

Examining Visual Identity of logo example Essay Today’s business world is moving at a fast pace and is ever changing, strong corporate identity and corporate image is increasingly necessary to any organization to succeed by embracing this dynamism (Stevenson, Christensen, 2001, PP. 231). Our society is moving at a fast rate than ever witnessed on the globe and many businesses places the human capital and consumer at the center of success strategy. Therefore, to achieve this success effect to the business, effective visual communication through the use of static and dynamic graphics; typography, color, and symbols are used to convey facts, concepts and emotions to the consumers and other stakeholders. This make up systematic graphic design that is information oriented, which helps customer base understand complex information and identify the company’s products that can be translated to profits (Stevenson, Christensen, 2001, PP. 290). In this regard, the logo example in form of an apple fruit is to Apple Computer Inc. the logo is such a familiar one, since it is on the digital and music products that I have interacted with. These products are Cinema Display, iPod, iPhone, Apple TV which are dominant to the young persons, while other products where the logo is displayed are Apple software, Mac, Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, iLife, iWork and AirPort. Apart from the products of the Apple Inc. company, the logo is placed on entrance of organization’s corporate headquarters in the middle of Silicon Valley, at 1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, California. Since it is founding in early 1976, Apple computer Inc. has revolutionized personal computing. Additionally, Apple has introduced amazing and wonderful products that have gone beyond technological boundaries. Thorough its attributing innovativeness in computer brands, Apple has become one of the world’s major computer brands in line with IBM, Microsoft, HP and Canon. Beneath Apple excellent brand performance and recognition globally, lies a powerful corporate identity facilitated by its well designed and unique logo. Apple logo is unique, in such a way that it does not bear any writings as many logos are and uses a bitten out apple fruit on the right side instead of a full fruit (Thomas, 2005). Yet, the Apple logo is one of the most recognized corporate symbols in the world of computer and digital business. Over the years since invention of the first logo in early 1976, Apple logo has undergone a revolution to capture the market corporate identity needs. Wayne and Jobs designed first Apple logo that depicted a graphic design of Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree with words inscribed stating that â€Å"Newton a mind forever voyaging through strange seas of thought† with ‘Apple Computer Co’ (table1. figure 1). This first logo to be used by Apple company, was designed by artistic skills of human person through hand as computers that are dominantly used in our present days were not yet invented. However, the company logo was later changed in late 1976 by designer Rob Janoff of the Regis McKenna Agency designed an iconic logo of an apple with the bite out on right side and with rainbow colors; simply rainbow apple (table1. figure 2). This design greatly relied on the attribute and commemoration to Isaac Newtons discoveries of the gravity (the apple), and the separation of light by prisms (the colors) in scientific technological world (Thomas, 2005, p. 225). The rainbow logo apple was used up to 1998, when the logo appeared in many bright colors; whereby the logo example presented in this case with aqua color scheme was famous among all brightly colored logos of Apple Inc. (table1. figure 3). This aqua color scheme logo was used up to the year 2005, when Apple Inc. discontinued the use of bright colors (Thomas, 2005, p. 204). At present the logo in use have white and raw-aluminum color schemes (table1. figure 4) that result to silvery chrome finish that fit ideally. After revamping the Apple Inc. logo design, the logo freshens up the icon and is consistent with the design scheme. Therefore, making the Apple logo acceptable and endorsed not only by me as a consumer of Apple music products, but also the consumer base and critics world wide. Ideally, the logo design of Apple computer Inc. fit with the services and products it offers to the digital market. This is in the sense that, iconic logo of an apple with the bite out on right side is linked by many visual communication scholars to mathematician Alan Turning who was the father of modern computer who committed suicide by biting into cyanide laced apple. Most significantly the bite is projection and indication of byte vs. bite (Thomas, 2005, p. 304). Furthermore, a rainbow colored Apple logo was used to advertise the color capability of the Apple II computer and the product ‘Macintosh’ refers to a particular variety of an apple. Indeed, the firm is one of a few success stories in the corporate world with Market capital of US$86.3 billion, Revenue of US$32. 48 billion, Operating income US$6. 28 billion , Net income US$4. 83 billion with 14. 88% profit margin and a capacity of 28,000 Employees as indicated by a quarterly financial rep[ort of year 2008. Table1. Apple Inc. logos Figure1: First design Figure2: Rainbow apple logo Figure3:Monochrome Figure4: Silvery chrome . Reference Stevenson, A. , Christensen, L. (2001). â€Å"Corporate identity and corporate image revisited†: European Journal of Marketing. Vol. 35, p. 292-328 Thomas, H. (2005). â€Å"Birth of the PowerBook: How Apple took over the portable market†: Low End Mac, 2005-11-23.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Sustainable Forest Management Concepts

Sustainable Forest Management Concepts CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Background of SFM The sustainable forest management idea has been promoted for the past 20 years in government of Sabah since 1989 but there had not been any serious attempt to put such idea into any effective practice. To solve this challenge, the BN State Government ensured that SFM is implemented in all future forest related activities (SFD, 1998). Seven main elements of SFM which act as a reference framework for sustainable forest management are the extent of forest resources; forest biological diversity; forest health and vitality; productive functions of forest resources; protective functions of forest resources; socio-economic functions of forests; and the legal, policy and institutional framework (Sarre Sabogal, 2013). All the main stakeholders involved in forest management such as: forest managers, government, non-government organizations (NGOs) and other stakeholders need to understand what is SFM mean in order to work together to achieve the objectives (Higman, 2005). FAO had studied almost 80 cases of successful SFM implementation which shown the economic, social and environmental benefits that can be achieved under SFM (Sarre Sabogal, 2013). One of the efforts in practice of SFM is adopted and implemented principles of sound forest management at Deramakot Forest Reserve in Sandakan. The Deramakot Forest Reserve is FMU No.19. It had covered 55,083 hectares of mixed Dipterocarp forest in the east of Sabah (Mannan, Awang, Radin, Abai Lagan, 2002). In 1989, Malaysia- German Sustainable Forest Management Project was extended to Sabah and conducted in Deramakot Forest Reserves. The main goal of this project is to apply an ecologically and scientifically substantiated forest management system (Mapa, 2003). This project was undertaken by the Sabah Forestry Department with the help of forest resource management such as stock inventory, reduced impact logging (RIL), the skyline yarding system, forest rehabilitation and silviculture. Due to the successfu l of SFM at Deramakot, in September 1997, the state Government had an agreement with 10 organizations from private sector which became active partners of the Government to ensure that the SFM practice at Deramakot is extended to other commercial forest areas in Sabah (SFD, 1998). According to Li (2014), SFM aims to ensure that the goods and services derived from forest meet peoples’ needs meanwhile maintain their continued availability and contribution to long-term development. Over the last 10 years, China has made a great amount of achievements in the forest sector based on sustainable forest management concept. For example, China had ranked the sixth in the world in terms of forest stock volume, following by Brazil, Russia, Canada, the United States of America and Democratic Republic of Congo. All these examples show that sustainable forest management concept can help to maintain ecosystem balanced. 2.2 Forest Management Unit (FMU) FMU is clearly defined as forest area which managed to a set of explicit objectives based on a long term management plan. SFM is divided all the commercial forest areas into 27 blocks called Forest Management Units (FMUs). Each FMU is about 100,000 hectares wide (Toh Grace, 2006) and every unit will be managed by selected companies (Mapa, 2003). Currently, the level of the FMU in Peninsular Malaysia is an individual state; in Sabah the FMU area will cover by each Sustainable Forest Management License Agreement (SFMLA); while in Sarawak, the FMU is an individual concession area (Ng, Tong Lim, 2002). 2.3 Forest Management Plan (FMP) FMU divided their forest area into severe compartments. Each compartment has to prepare its own FMP. A FMP is a strategic plan that can provide an overview or description of the forest area and the basis activities for monitoring the forest (Armitage, 1998). FMP can also name as medium-term forest management planning which have a minimum duration of 10 years (Kleine Heuveldop, 1993). FMP translates the forest policy and prepared a well operational program for regulating forest activities. A FMP should include description of forest resource base, the management actions of the resources, review at the mid-point of the plan, review in the final year of the plan and the preparation of a new plan when the present plan expired (Armitage, 1998). FMP is an important strategy which conducted by FMU to well manage the community forest and bring benefits to local communities. 2.4 Community Forestry Community forestry is a village-level forestry activity which also can be defined as the participation of local communities in the planning, establishing, managing and harvesting of forest crops in a forest, so they can receive a major proportion of the socio-economic and ecological benefits from the forest (Nixon, Herbohn Harrison, 2001). The participation of local community is very critical to promote sustainable livelihoods and maintain forest resources (Murdiyarso, 2006). According to Metha (2002), both India and Nepal have a wide variety of forests. At that time, the use of forest is controlled by local community’s traditions. However due to massive loss of forest, the governments of India and Nepal began to take over the forest management authority in the late 1980s. This cause the local communities lost their stewardship. As a result, the community forest programs are implemented to give communities financial stake so they have an incentive to preserve the forest. In 1988, the master plan for Nepal’s program was adopted which states that the forest administration should allow people to have full control over the forest. 2.5 Issues during implementation of SFM concept According to Hickey (2004), during evaluating progress in monitoring and reporting information for SFM, some issues related to forestry such as: trade considerations, socio-economics conditions, forest resource characteristics and forest land ownership need to be considered. There are some challenges faced by local communities who living in the forests for manage the forests sustainability. For example, lack of available land especially those peoples with no legal claim to their native customary right (NCR) of land within forest reserves. These communities are limited from clearing additional land for their use (Toh Grace, 2006). Local communities argued about the forest boundary. They are restricted to enter into the forest to collect forest products (Lintangah, 2013). According to Lintangah (2013), another issue that faced by local communities during implementation of SFM concepts is the relationship with the FMU holders. Local communities have a low level of cooperation because they lack of consultation from FMU holders and some FMU holders begin their activities without permission of local communities. Besides that, lack of understanding about SFM concept among local communities also becomes an issue during implementation of SFM. SFM implementation also brought some impacts to locals such as lack of infrastructure development and maintenance for example road; lack of provision of job opportunities to the local communities and environmental pollution. Richards Yaron (2003) stated that the main problem or issues for sustainable forest management is the failures of market and policy which cause more profitable to cut down trees than to retain or manage them. All these challenges or issues can cause limitation of use right among local communities and occurred conflicts between local communities and forest managers (Duguma, Hager Gruber, 2009). To solve all these conflicts between stakeholders, SRM approaches should be conducted. It is important to conduct a study about the perceptions of communities towards SRM approaches which can help to solve the issues during SFM implementation. Based on Wang (2008), perception is the insight or intuition gained by perceiving. It can be defined as the sixth sense of human beings. Perception is an important cognitive function that can determine personality. 2.6 Stakeholder Relations Management (SRM) The stakeholder relations management approach refers as the framework for analyzing and evaluating a corporation’s relationship with external groups to achieve â€Å"win-win† situations that can benefit everyone (Lintangah, 2013). However, there are usually occurs winners and losers in a complex situations. As a result, stakeholder management approach is conducted for planning and implementing collaborative relationship to obtain win-win outcomes among stakeholders. SRM approach is a response to the growth and progress of corporations to understand how the corporation operates with their stakeholders (Lintangah, 2013). An effective SRM can well-managed the relationship among stakeholders for mutual benefits (Post, Preston Sachs, 2002). The six steps that focus in stakeholder management approach are first identify key stakeholders, describe their stakes in the organization, determine if those stakes are significant, evaluate the opportunities and challenges, determine t he organization’s responsibility to the stakeholder, and finally create relationship strategies (Shannon Thomas, 2015). One of the examples of SRM approaches is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which means â€Å"a voluntary management system used by the companies to incorporate a variety of social, environmental and economic pressures into their business operations and their interaction with their stakeholders† (Lintangah, 2013, p.36). Stakeholder management approaches can help to solve problems related with SFM implementation. Most of the stakeholders feel that the dialogue is one of the useful tools in dealing with their claims and interests besides media and technology. It can solve the conflicts among stakeholders through communicating, negotiating, contracting, managing relationships and motivating (Freeman, 2004). The SRM approaches that conducted under SFM at FMU level included community forestry, joint forest management, CSR programmes, inter-agencies involvement, and contract forestry that will promote and support the SFM implementation at the FMU level. According to Lintangah (2013), the supporting tools for SRM include the Forest Management Plan, Annual Work Plan, related government policies at the state and federal level, the Forest Enactment of 1968, and the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). 2.7 Sustainable Forest Management License Agreement (SFMLA) In September 1997, Sustainable Forest Management license Agreement (SFMLA) which is valid for 100 years is formed and replaced the timber license agreement (Toh Grace, 2006). On 10 September 1997, 10 companies had signed SFMLA with the government to show their cooperation in forest management. They were: Yayasan Sabah; Idris Hydraulic (Malaysia) Bhd; TSH Resources Bhd; Sapulut Forest Development Sdn Bhd; Bugaya Forest Sdn Bhd; The North Borneo Timber Corporation Berhad; Modern Innovation Realty Sdn Bhd; Anika Desiran Sdn Bhd; Bornion Timber Sdn Bhd and Timberwell Bhd (SFD, 1998). SFMLA holders are responsible for forest planning, forest inventories, preparation of forest management plans, implementation of the SFM, the establishment and maintenance of infrastructure, the security and protection of the FMU area, the protection and conservation of the unique environment within the SFMLA area, support financial of all the expenses and the accommodation of local communities’ interests (Lintangah, 2013). Under SFMLA, licence holders have to implement community forestry (CF) projects within their respective FMUs. All the companies have to submit annual work plans and harvest plans for each logging plots based on reduced-impact logging systems. All the management and operational plans, especially monitoring the activities of licence holders had to approve by Forestry Department (Toh Grace, 2006).

Friday, September 20, 2019

Employee Motivation: Literature Analysis

Employee Motivation: Literature Analysis Chapter Two- Literature Review 2.1 Introduction At one time, employees were considered just another input into the production of goods and services. What perhaps changed this way of thinking about employees was the research, referred to as the Hawthorne studies, conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932 (Dickson, 1973).This study found out that employees are not motivated solely by money but also their behaviour is linked to their attitudes (Dickson, 1973).The Hawthorne studies begun the human relations approach to management, whereby the needs and motivation of employees become the primary focus of managers (Bedein, 1993). Understanding employee motivation and its relationship with corporate culture and gender is the focus of this research. This chapter is divided into seven sections; section 2.1 introduces the main subjects of this dissertation and is followed by section 2.2 which discusses employee motivation in small medium companies. The next section which is section 2.3 looks at motivation and the various theories developed by researchers, then section 2.4 considers the role of the manager when it comes to employee motivation. The last two sections; section 2.5 examines corporate culture with section 2.6 on gender and how it is perceived. Finally a summary of the whole chapter is presented in section 2.7. This section will review the most relevant studies on employee motivation and in small medium companies. 2.2 Employee Motivation in Small Medium Companies Organizational scientists and practitioners have long been interested in employee motivation and commitment. This interest derives from the belief and evidence that there are benefits to having a motivated and committed workforce. The Hawthorne Studies A major revision of ‘needs theory came from the work undertaken in the United State of America in the 1920s and 1930s of the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company. This gave rise to a new school of management thinking, which suggested that employees have social needs which are as important as economic needs; these studies concluded that social relationships were significant in the satisfaction of the human need for social contact. The major contribution of this work in understanding employee motivation at work has been to focus attention on the design of jobs and tasks in an effort to make them attractive (Mullins, 2007). Employee motivation could be seen as the internal strength that drives employee performance. This strength enables employees to carry out their duties as expected of them having a particular aim in mind. And in most cases, where this strength is lacking, employees sometimes perform poorly. However, certain factors like job features, individual variation and organisational practices may influence employee motivation to work. It depends on good system that reward effectively, because it is critical as a motivated employee will achieve a great deal (Clark, 2009). According to McConnell (2002) companies have to consider the following steps in order to keep their employees in the organisation: ïÆ'Ëœ The employees perception of the work environment directly relates to the job performance. ïÆ'Ëœ What employees think of their jobs and their employer when the environment is positive ïÆ'Ëœ Improvement of the environment generally improves employee performance. McMackin (2006) states that large corporations have more money, name recognition and benefits to attract the best employees in comparison with small medium companies. Regardless of the positive aspects of larger corporations, many employees leave in order to work for small businesses, since they are able to have faster career advancement. According to Gaebler Ventures (2006) research show ten different motivational factors that are important for increasing motivation both for managers as well as employees; they include promotion potential, interesting work, personal loyalty, tactful discipline, appreciation for work done, good working conditions, help with personal problems, high wages, feeling of being in on things and job security. Gerson (2003) on the other hand states that employees in small organisations may leave for better salaries and benefits. The decision to leave can be affected by feelings of unappreciation, work condition, cultural conflicts, lack of convenience, lack of advancement and lack of support. According to Moses (2005) the basis for employee motivation is divided into two categories; anticipation of reward for work well done, and fear of discipline for mistakes or works done poorly. Motivation techniques at most companies falls into one of these two categories. The ideal for a small-business owner is to motivate employees in a positive way, since employees develop loyalty and personal commitment when they are encouraged to perform well in order to advance and receive recognition and financial benefits. The most negative aspect of this method is the fact that the less hard working employees will be fired or downgraded. The method also lacks teamwork, includes employee backbiting and has no long-term motivation. Wiley (1997) states that the relationship between people and work have fascinated scientists for many years, both psychologists and behavioural scientist, but in both field concepts such as need, motive, goal, incentive and attitude occur more frequently rather than concepts of aptitude, ability and skill. Scientist investigates how personal, task and environmental characteristics influence behaviour and job performance concerning motivation. Motivation does not remain the same over the years, it changes due to personal, social and other factors and it also affects the behaviour of a person rather than end performance. In order to create an environment that fosters employee motivation it is important to explore the attitudes that employees have towards factors that motivate them. When a company know what motivates its employees they are better prepared to stimulate them to perform well. In order to know what motivates employees, organisations must have regular communication and ask employees what sparks and sustains their desire to work (Herzberg, 2003). Most managers assume that their employees have the same motivational drivers as them, but managers must abandon this assumption and focus on the recognition of individual drivers. Findings from a forty year survey demonstrate that employees are motivated by receiving feedback and recognition and those individuals at different levels of the organisation might have different motivational values (Wiley, 1997). Managers have to understand what motivate their employees in order to receive high performance at the organisation. 2.3 Motivation Motivation is the formation of incentives, and working atmosphere which allow individuals to carry out their duties to the top of their capability in pursuit of organisational success. It is commonly viewed as the magic drives that allow managers to get employees to realize their targets. Since the dawn of the twentieth century, there has been a shift at least in theory. Since the early 1900s several theories have been advanced which have offered insight into the concept of motivation (Strickler, 2006). The hierarch of needs espoused by Abraham Maslow sheds lights on individual behaviour pattern. Other significant studies have been carried out by Frederick Herzberg, who considered job fulfilment, Douglas McGregors X and Y theory, which suggest management styles that motivate and de-motivate employees etc. Underpinning Herzbergs theory was his attempt to bring more humanity and caring into the workplace. His theory was to explain how to manage people properly, and to motivate them for the good of all people at work. Many contemporary authors have come up with several definitions for the concept of motivation. Motivation has been defined as the emotional progression that gives behaviour reason and course (Kreitner, 1995), the inner drives to fulfil unsatisfied need (Higgins, 1994), and the determination to realize (Bedeian, 1993). In dissertation, motivation is defined as the central energy that derive individual to accomplish personal and organisational goals (Mullins, 2007). Motivation can have an impact on the productivity of any company or organisation. Organisations and companies relies heavily on the efficiency of it production personnel to ensure that goods are produced in numbers that meet up customers order. If these workforce not have the motivation to create and perform to the best of their ability and meet the demand of customers, then an organisation may face a problem which may lead to serious consequences. 2.3.1 Internal and External Motivation Motivation according to Kehr (2004) can be either internal or external, it can be viewed as push or pull determinants. Implicit motives are factors intrinsic to the activity and explicit motives arise from factors extrinsic to the activity. Intrinsic motivation is the key motivation component of employee empowerment and individuals are responsible for achieving their own career success. It is based on positively valued experiences that a person receives directly from their work tasks such as meaningfulness, competence, choice and progress. Bymes (2006) explain that external motivators depend on outside factors to push the individual to complete a task. Kehr (2004) adds that explicit motives are influenced by social demands and normative pressures. Extrinsic rewards are based on reward and punishments controlled by the organisation. Like Bymes (2006) individuals with external motivators are motivated by salary or wage packets. Internal on the other hand is associated with employees who want to be employed in a particular position by a firm whose organisational values and work requirements are closely linked with the individuals personal values and skills. Implicit and explicit motives relate to different aspects of the person, but both are important determinants of behaviour. According to Basset-Jones Lloyd (2005) motivators associated with intrinsic drivers outweigh motives linked to financial and inducement and observing others benefiting from recognition and extrinsic rewards. Like Locke Latham (2004) internal factors that drive motivation and external factors that act as inducements to action is the concept of motivation. Motivation can affect three aspects of work; direction, intensity and duration. Peoples skill, abilities and how and to what extent they utilise them are affected by motivation. According to Katz (2005) intrinsic factors are the main reason for a persons true commitment and motivation. Extrinsic factors like salary and working conditions are also important, but do not give the commitment and excitement that the employee needs. How a person views the assignment and how tasks, information, rewards and decision-making processes are organised are strongly linked to the personal activities. People become more motivated when they identify themselves within a group and contribute to performance as a group (Van Knippenberg, 2000).This relies on the work performed by Locke and the goal setting theory he developed. This goal is team performance and the individual feeling part of the group. The focus of Locke was on the goal but in order to reach the goal one must associate oneself with the group and task. Glen (2006) contend that the most important factor to rely on is feedback since it can help an employee improve his or her performance ; communication is also vital in the world today and can be beneficial to both the manager and employee . 2.3.2 Motivation Theories The traditional form of motivation stated that people could be driven by fear and therefore managers had to be tough. This approach made the employees do the bare minimum and only work while their manager was watching. Research on motivation and it impact on individuals and employees has been undertaken from the mid-twentieth century. Prominent among such researchers include; Maslow1954, Herzberg 1959, Adams 1962, Vroom 1964, Alderfer 1972, Locke 1981 and others. There is intense competition as a result of technological advancement, demographic changes, globalisation, which puts more pressure on organisations to deliver products and services with continuous improvement. The theories on motivation identify individual needs, their expectation and reaction to both internal as well as to the external environment. The various motivation theories are discussed below. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs A ground-breaking theory on the subject of motivation and needs of the human being was advanced by Abraham Maslow in 1954.He stated that there are some fundamental needs for the human being that can be arranged in a hierarchic way. He argued that individuals and for the purpose of this study, employees are motivated to satisfy a number of diverse needs. According to Maslow until the most vital needs are fulfilled, other needs have little effect on the employees behaviour. Once a need is satisfied, and therefore less essential, other needs emerge and become motivators of their behaviour (Porter et al, 2003). At the base of the hierarchy is the physiological needs; food, clothes etc.These are considered primary needs as employees concentrate on satisfying these needs before the others. Physiological needs according to Maslow are undeniably the most pressing of all needs. Once this need is fulfilled, the next level surfaces with the employee becoming anxious with the need for safety and security both at home and at the workplace. Likewise, once the safety need too is satisfied, the employee strives for a sense of membership or an affiliation and a feeling of approval by others. Once the employee finds his/her place in a group or team, the need and longing to be held in esteem, recognised and respect crops up. Maslow asserts that with all these needs satisfied, employees are then motivated by the desire to ‘self-actualise and accomplish whatever they identify as their utmost potential. (Ramlall, 2004) Herzbergs Two-Factor theory According to Herzberg an individuals relation and attitude towards work can determine success or failure. While Maslow looked at individual needs, Herzberg tried to find out how employees felt about their work and what really motivates them. In 1959 he created his two-factor theory by looking at the causes of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in an effort to fully know what motivate people. He divided the needs into two categories; hygiene factors which relate to the needs that involve the framework of the task they performed and if these needs are not fulfilled there will be dissatisfaction on the part of employees. In essence if you want to motivate employees, concern should be given to the work itself (Ramlall, 2004). Herzbergs hygiene factors can be linked to Maslows hierarchy of needs and primarily the vital needs at the base of the hierarchy. The hygiene needs accommodate the need that arises from the physiological, safety and social or belongingness needs that do not make the employees satisfied in their job, but simply avoid dissatisfaction if fulfilled. In contrast motivator factors are those that allow for psychological growth and progress on the job. They are very much connected to the idea of self-actualisation regarding a challenge, to savour the satisfaction of achievement, and to be acknowledged as having done something meaningful (Basset- Jones and Lloyd, 2005). Herzberg further stated that certain characteristics are related to job satisfaction and others to job dissatisfaction. Intrinsic factors, such as achievement, advancement, recognition, responsibility are related to job satisfaction. Job dissatisfaction is a result of extrinsic factors; company policies, supervision, working condition etc. He assert that a job do not get satisfying by removing dissatisfying factors and therefore dissatisfaction is not the reverse of fulfilment. In order to understand the employees motivation to work the attitudes of the particular employee has to be known (Herzberg, 2003). To Bassett-Jones Lloyd (2005) Herzberg was interested in the extremes where workers either felt good about work or bad, and this led to the development of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. The extrinsic factors are called hygiene or maintenance factors and are linked to job dissatisfaction. Intrinsic factors on the other hand lead to job satisfaction. The factors were labelled motivators to growth because they were associated with high level of job satisfaction. The two factors are of equal importance when explaining what motivates an employee. They explain Herzbergs suggestion of motivation as similar to ‘internal self-charging battery. For employees to become motivated the energy has to come from within. Herzberg however argues that motivation is founded on development needs; and originate from satisfaction born out of a sense of achievement, recognition for achievement, responsibility and personal growth. A review of Maslows and Herzbergs theory lead to further research and theories the first of which was developed in 1962 by Stacy Adams. Equity Theory This theory developed by Stacey Adams in 1962 suggests that since there is no absolute standard for fairness, and employees want to be treated fairly, they are likely to assess fairness by making comparison with others in similar situations. If they find out that they are not treated similarly they may lower their output, their quality of work or even leave the organisation for another where they are likely to be treated better. In essence it is not the real reward that motivate, but the perception of the reward in comparisons with others (Boxall and Purcell, 2007. While a simple theory, this theory according to Latham cannot cover every incident as some employees are far more receptive to perceptions of unfairness than others. It is therefore very important for managers to be conscious of what their employees perceive to be fair and just and also know that this will differ from one employee to the other (Latham, 2007). Vrooms Expectancy Theory Whereas Maslow and Herzberg looked at the connection between needs and the ensuing effort expanded to fulfil them, Vroom concentrated on effort, performance and outcomes. The fundamental concepts key to expectancy theory is that the anticipation of what will happen influences the employees choice of behaviour that is, expectations and valence. Vroom interpreted motivation as a process in which employees choose from a set of alternatives based upon the likely levels of expectation, and called the individuals perception of this instrumentality. Valence in his theory is the assessment of actual outcome of ones performance and together with instrumentality is very central in the expectancy theory (Ramlall, 2004; Mullins 2007). From this theorys viewpoint, an employee assigns a worth to an expectation, considers how much effort will be required, and works out the likelihood of success. If the perceived reward is sufficient for the effort required, the employee may make the effort. Expectancy in this theory is the prospect that they can carry out their duty in a way that leads to an optimistic result. For the employee the amount of effort he/she is eager to put in any performance of task is influenced by the expectation of the outcome of the effort (Mullins, 2007). If the employee works hard then he/she can expect a good work result hence a higher reward. High instrumentality for the employee comes from the notion that if he/she shows off good work result there will be adequate reward. Low instrumentality would then be that the employee feels that the result of the reward will not be independent on the particular work result. Writing in People Management Magazine, Lees (2008) believes that Vrooms theory give an insight into the research of employee motivation by shedding more lights on how individual goals sway individual performance. Vrooms expectancy theory has been criticised for attempting to envisage a choice or effort. However because no obvious pattern of the meaning of effort exist, the variable cannot be measured effectively. According to Latham (2007), the employee is assumed to deliberately weigh up the satisfaction or pain that he/she expects to attain or avoid and then a selection is made. The theory says nothing about intuitive motivation, something that Locke considered when he expanded Vrooms theory. Alderfers ERG Theory Unlike Maslows theory that refers to an individual who acts increasingly for his/her need satisfaction first, with the simplest one up to the most complex ones, Clayton Alderfers theory (1972) which extended Maslows theory asserts that this course of action is not essentially progressive. According to him, there are three significant categories of human needs: Existence (E) needs which ensures the sustainability and human endurance; food, Salary, shelter etc Relational needs (R) that is socialising need that refers to the relationship between an individual and the social setting and is satisfied by interpersonal relations. Fulfilling these needs depends on the association with others. Growth (G) needs which consists of a persons self respect through personal feature as well as the concept of self-actualisation present in Maslows hierarchy of needs.Alderfer believed that as you begin satisfying superior needs, they become powerful like the power you get, the more you want (Mullins 2007) . Although not fully tested, Ramlall (2004) and Strickler (2006) contend that the ERG theory seems to describe the dynamics of individual needs in an organisation rationally well and can help managers when it comes to motivating employees. To them it provides a less rigid account of employees needs than Maslows hierarchy. By and large, it comes closest to explaining why employees have certain needs at diverse times. Goal Setting Theory Edwin Locke extended Vrooms theory by developing his goal setting theory which takes into consideration the conscious motives that exist when organisations set goals to be met. According to Robbins (2003) Lockes goal setting theory states that specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance with the help of feedback. In addition to feedback, goal commitment, and adequate self -efficacy, task characteristics and national culture have been found to influence the goal performance relationship. Motivation comes from the goal an individual set up based on human needs, personal values, personality traits etc which are shaped through socialization and experience. The behaviour used to accomplish the goal depends on whether the goal is difficult or specific. The amount of effort an individual puts in reflects the level of satisfaction experienced which can lead to other actions (Porter et al, 2003). In order to reach the goals some conditions has to be present; such as feedback, goal commitment, ability etc. According to him, a goal is required in order to create motivation within the employees to perform better than before. He indicates that financial rewards can improve the sustainability of a persons dedication as well as behaviour. .Goal setting and management by objectives programs have grown in the past two decades and motivation has been organised in three categories; personality based view, cognitive decision and self regulation perspectives. The basic idea of Lockes goal setting theory is that employees goals are related to their motivation since their goals direct their thoughts and action. The cognitive decision predicts an individuals choices or decisions and finally the personality-based perspective emphasize personal characteristics as they affect goal choice and striving (Locke and Latham, 2004). The personality-based category does not predict motivation, but it can provide understanding of what motivates individuals. The above theories are part of the broad field of human motivation study and they all have implications for individuals different workplace behaviour. They can also be applied to a variety of management practices aimed at motivating employees. However these researches were carried out in Western Europe and in America decades ago. Can the findings of this research be applied in Ghana which is in a different setting? Will similar research in Ghana yield the same result? T o better understand employee motivation, it is important to know the role of managers who are facilitators of employee motivation. 2.4 Motivating Employees: The Role of the Manager Leadership literature states that motivation is influenced by the nature of the relationship between the leader and employees. Managers according Bymes (2006) needs to hire the right person that is most suitable for a certain job, value its employees and support them in making contributions to the organisations and always try to create a motivated workforce. Motivated employees do not only create a good working environment, they also make noteworthy contributions to the organisations. Good managers make their employees fell like business partners and use empowerment in order to make the workplace and the surrounding environment into a place where employees feel good as well as creating a work wherefrom employees feel good inside (Bassett-Jones Lloyd,2005). Motivation therefore is about cultivating your human capital. The human challenges lies not in the work itself, but in you, the person who creates and manage the work environment. As indicated by Garg Rastogi (2006) in todays competitive environment feedback is essential for organizations to give and receive from employees and the more knowledge the employee learn, the more he or she will be motivated to perform and meet the global challenges of the market place. By involving the employee at work and providing challenging tasks it might increase the intrinsic motivation which transforms potential into creative ideas and this will factor fair and constructive judgement of ideas and sharing of informations.Leaders have an important part in the organisation because they act as the force that motivates the performance of the employees (Katz,2005). Leaders are there to motivate people to follow the designed work and by doing so enhance performance. Even though employees look to diverse organisational elements to suit different drivers of needs, they look forward to their managers to do their best to attend to their needs and concerns. Organisations has to recognize the resources, both human and technological that are available within the organisation and conduct training programs that will contribute to the productivity and the levels of motivation at individual or group levels. Motivating employees begins that to do their best, employees must be in an atmosphere where their emotional drive to bond and be understood are met. The drive to bond is best achieved by a custom that encourages teamwork and frankness (Nohira et al, 2008). Motivating employees is vital if employers are to achieve maximum performance and productivity. Contemporary theories on motivation centres more specifically on the relation of beliefs, values, goals with action. Motivation in contrast functions as an engine for inner human growth by providing attractive and demanding task. Motivation theories developed in the western world with their orientation on self-satisfaction and instrumentalism have mainly emphasized on rewarding those individuals who succeed. These theories did not take into consideration the terrain in Africa and also individuals who are highly motivated but incapable of accomplishing. This has produced in some part of Africa and also in Ghana situations where managers are not able to answer the needs of every employee. Studies indicate that employees in the western world draw their motivation from self satisfaction but the same cannot be said of their counterparts in Africa and most especially in Ghana. What do they derive their motivation from? Does the companys corporate culture have any bearing on how they are motivated? Is there a relationship between the companys corporate culture and motivation? The next section will look at motivation and corporate culture. 2.5 Motivation and Corporate culture Corporate culture draws its roots from various sources. This include national and regional cultures, (Hofstede, 1991) the vision and management style (Schein, 1985) and the nature of the business and the environment it operates in and the organisational field where it operates (Gordon, 1991). For this study the relevant cultural roots comes from Ghana. Individuals, especially qualified ones, have more choices with regards to potential jobs offers. How companies motivate place a vital role in attracting employee and competing well todays competitive market. To create a culture that fosters individual motivation is not easy because it takes time to figure out the factors that motivate each employee. It is even more important nowadays as more individuals draw their interest from other things beside money. To understand the importance of corporate culture in this dissertation it is important to first define what culture is. Schein (2004) defines culture as ‘consisting of rules, procedures and processes that govern how things are done, as well as the philosophy that guides the attitudes of senior management towards staff and customers. Referring in his work to the people of a nation Hofstede also defines culture as ‘the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes one group or category of people from another. Thus it endorses the issue that corporate culture is a unique aspect of an organisation, even though it is difficult to manage. According to Schein an organisations culture develops to help cope with its environment. He characterizes culture as consisting of three levels: ïÆ'Ëœ Artefacts which are the most observable level of culture yet are hard to understand. ïÆ'Ëœ Espoused Values; which underlie and to a large extent determine behaviour, but they are not directly observable as behaviours. There may be a variation involving known and functioning values. ïÆ'Ëœ Basic assumptions and Values: the essence of culture is characterized by the fundamental assumptions and ideals, which are not easy to differentiate since they are present at mainly unconscious point. Nevertheless they offer the input to appreciate why things turn out the way they do. 2.5.1 National culture National culture milieu influences the outlook of an organisations stakeholders. Hofstede proved this with work on IMB employees in 43 countries and how attitude to work and behaviour of employees towards authority differ from one location to the other. In his study he identified five dimensions of culture and demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behaviour and activities of organisations. The first dimension is power distance and refers to the degree to which people accept inequality amongst institutions and organisations. The second dimension, uncertainty avoidance measures the degree to which people are willing to accept change and work in uncertain circumstances. Therefore the higher the degree of uncertainty avoidance the more structured people likes things to be (Steers et al, 1993). Individualism which is the third dimension refers to the degree to which people see themselves as being part of a group or as individuals. His fourth culture dimension, masculinity versus femininity refers to the conventional values place

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Comedic Creativity in the Works of Jon Scieszka :: Biography Biographies Essays

Comedic Creativity in the Works of Jon Scieszka When it comes to authors, Jon Scieszka is at the top of the list of those who have mastered the art of continuing a theme throughout their work. All of Jon's books have one theme in common: comedic creativity. Never expect the ordinary from a Scieszka book. Wacky themes are Scieszka's trademark and no book is a better example of this than The Stinky Cheese Man and Other Fairly Stupid Tales. In this book, Scieszka took sticking with a theme to heart, from front to back cover. Theme was considered in every design aspect of the book from the table of contents to the incorporation of the UPC code on the back of the cover. Scieszka does not overlook one detail in his book that might possibly help out with his theme. Maybe this is what makes him such a successful author. Scieszka is famous for creating parodies of fairytales and fables by manipulating them to make his own unique stories. In The Stinky Cheese Man, Scieszka's twisted tales are combined to create a chaotic journey through tales such as the "The Princess and the Bowling Ball" and the "Boy who Cried Cow Patty." Not only does Scieszka have fun writing the stories for his books but he also plays around with the formalities most books approach in the traditional structured manner. In Scieszka's book, the narrator comes in conflict with other characters in the stories. The table of contents is more than just a reader's guide to the book; it is placed out of order on page nine, well into the book, and plays an important role in moving the story along. The back cover of the book even incorporates the UPC bar code into the theme. The Little Red Hen, who is seen nagging and complaining throughout the book, is pointing to the bar code and shouting "What is this doing here? This is ugly! Who is this ISBN Guy? Who will buy this book anyway?" (Scieska). Scieszka stays true to his quirky theme even on the back inside pannel of the book jacket. He substitutes pictures of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln for his and Lane's pictures. Even the blurbs underneath the pictures are amusing to read and are filled with more than the usual information about authors and illustrators. Theme was not just mastered only within the writing of Scieszka's books. Comedic Creativity in the Works of Jon Scieszka :: Biography Biographies Essays Comedic Creativity in the Works of Jon Scieszka When it comes to authors, Jon Scieszka is at the top of the list of those who have mastered the art of continuing a theme throughout their work. All of Jon's books have one theme in common: comedic creativity. Never expect the ordinary from a Scieszka book. Wacky themes are Scieszka's trademark and no book is a better example of this than The Stinky Cheese Man and Other Fairly Stupid Tales. In this book, Scieszka took sticking with a theme to heart, from front to back cover. Theme was considered in every design aspect of the book from the table of contents to the incorporation of the UPC code on the back of the cover. Scieszka does not overlook one detail in his book that might possibly help out with his theme. Maybe this is what makes him such a successful author. Scieszka is famous for creating parodies of fairytales and fables by manipulating them to make his own unique stories. In The Stinky Cheese Man, Scieszka's twisted tales are combined to create a chaotic journey through tales such as the "The Princess and the Bowling Ball" and the "Boy who Cried Cow Patty." Not only does Scieszka have fun writing the stories for his books but he also plays around with the formalities most books approach in the traditional structured manner. In Scieszka's book, the narrator comes in conflict with other characters in the stories. The table of contents is more than just a reader's guide to the book; it is placed out of order on page nine, well into the book, and plays an important role in moving the story along. The back cover of the book even incorporates the UPC bar code into the theme. The Little Red Hen, who is seen nagging and complaining throughout the book, is pointing to the bar code and shouting "What is this doing here? This is ugly! Who is this ISBN Guy? Who will buy this book anyway?" (Scieska). Scieszka stays true to his quirky theme even on the back inside pannel of the book jacket. He substitutes pictures of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln for his and Lane's pictures. Even the blurbs underneath the pictures are amusing to read and are filled with more than the usual information about authors and illustrators. Theme was not just mastered only within the writing of Scieszka's books.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Stoppards Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead and Vonneguts Slaughterhouse-Five :: comparison compare contrast essays

Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead and Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse-Five That we, people, are "bugs in amber" is one of the main themes of Kurt Vonnegut's novel Slaughterhouse-Five; or Children's Crusade. Tom Stoppard's play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead is, in my opinion, very similar to this book. While Slaugterhouse-Five is an American novel, a mixture of the author's Second World War experiences and science fiction genre, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead is a British play set into William Shakespeare's Hamlet. What are these two literary works similar in, then? It is the central theme. Both works show that we are physically stuck in this world, our future is already given, and we have no way of escaping our destiny. Both writers provide a little room for their character's imagination which is, in my opinion, crucial item of both literary works. In this paper I will try to use Kurt Vonnegut's novel to help me point out the major theme of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead and to explain and clarify the theme's meaning and main message. The main theme of Slaughterhouse-Five is expressed several times throughout the novel. One of the examples is the passage which shows (from the view of the Tralfamadorians -- alien beings) that the future is given and that one cannot change it. "All moments, past, present, and future, always have existed, always will exist. The Tralfamadorians can look at all the different moments just the way we can look at a stretch of the Rocky Mountains, for instance." (Vonnegut:27) Another passage of the novel describes the theme more directly. It is the part when the Tralfamadorians kidnap Billy Pilgrim and he asks "why?". "Have you ever seen bugs trapped in amber? Well, here we are, Mr. Pilgrim, trapped in the amber of this

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Competitive Strategy for Dialog Mobile

Competitive Strategy 1 Competitive Strategy for Dialog Mobile Competitive Strategy 2 ABSTRACT The study aims at devising a competitive strategy for Dialog Mobile, the provider of mobile telephony services which is the core business of Dialog Telekom PLC. Dialog which currently has customer base of over 5 Million and a revenue share of over 60% is the market leader in Sri Lanka’s mobile industry.However due to aggressive competitor price wars, the entrance of multinational giants such as Bharthi Airtel, global and domestic economic downturn, fluctuating inflation and high cost of energy combined with a bullish expansion strategy, Dialog had to face a loss of Rs. 2. 88 Billion in 2008 from a profit of 8. 91 Billion in 2007. This forms the background for Dialog’s competitive strategy. Since the industry has an Oligopolistic structure, constant price wars are putting the industry at risk.In order to be sustainable in such an environment it is crucial that Dialog focuses on customer retention and acquisition via customer centric policies, processes and a culture of relentless pursuit towards exceptional customer service. This would have to be backed by lean processes, prudent investments and rigorous project management. Dialog should also consider the feasibility of following an outsourced model by handing over high cost activities such as network infrastructure management and IT to selected vendors. Competitive Strategy 3Table of Contents ABSTRACT †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 2 Introduction †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 6 Preliminary Business Analysis †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 7 Value Creation †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Micro Economic Analysis †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 10 Cost Structure †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 10 Five Forces Analysis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 12 Existing Rivalry Amongst Competitors †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 13 Threat Of New Entrants †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 3 The Power Of Suppliers †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 14 The Power Of Buyers †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 15 SWOT Analysis †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 15 Strengths†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ . 15 Weaknesses†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 6 Opportunities †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 17 Threats †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 17 Market Structure & Customer Behavior†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚ ¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 18 Dialog Telekom PLC Performance Review for 2008 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 19 Macro Economic Analysis †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 3 Economic Forecast †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 25 Driving Forces †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â ‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 27 Competitive Strategy 4 Driving Forces in the Local Industry †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 27 Changes In Long Term Industry Growth Rate †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 7 Entry Of Major Multinational Firms †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 28 Innovative Business Models †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 28 Expon ential Growth In Network Bandwith †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 28 Regulatory Changes †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 28 Reduced Consumer Spending†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 9 Unemployment †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 29 Increased Taxes†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â ‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 29 Driving Forces In The Global Industry †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 30 The Internet And Digitization Of Content †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 30 Strategic Plan For Dialog Mobile †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 0 Short Term †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 30 Enhanced Cost Management †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 30 Increased Focus On Customer Retention †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 31 Process Optimization To Support Customer Centric Objectives †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 31 Stringent Project Management With Emphasis On Significant Value Addition †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 2 Long Term Plan (2-4 Years) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 32 Cost Leadership †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 32 Outsourced Business Model †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 32 Increased Emphasis On Data †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 33 Increased Emphasis On Green Technologies †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 3 REFERENCES †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 34 Competitive Strategy 5 Table of Figures TABLE 1 DIRECT COSTS †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 11 TABLE 2 OPERATIONAL COSTS †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 11 TABLE 3 DTL SUBSCRIBER GROWTH †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 9 TABLE 4 DTL REVENUE GROWTH †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 19 TABLE 5 DTL DIRECT COST COMPARISON †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 20 TABLE 6 DTL OPERATIONAL COST COMPARISON †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 2 0 TABLE 7 DTL FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE SNAP SHOT †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 22 FIGURE 1 VALUE CREATION †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. FIGURE 2 DTL COST STRUCTURE†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 10 FIGURE 3 VALUE CHAIN †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 11 FIGURE 4 FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 12 FIGURE 5 DTL REVENUE GROWTH – INVESTOR FORUM 2008 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 20 FIGURE 6 DTL QUARTERLY REVENUE GROWTH †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 1 FIGURE 7 DTL SUBSCRIBER GROWTH †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 21 FIGURE 8 BUSINESS CYCLE †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 23 FIGURE 9 SRI LANKA GDP ANALYSIS †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 25 FIGURE 10 SRI LANKA INFLATION TREND †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. .. 26 FIGURE 11 SRI LANKA MOBILE TAXES †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 7 Competitive Strategy 6 Economic Strategy for Dialog Mobile Introduction Dialog Telekom PLC, Sri Lanka's leading telecommunications company, operates Dialog GSM, the country's largest mobile phone network. Dialog GSM has spearheaded the mobile industry in Sri Lanka propelling it to a level of technology in line with the best in the world. The company operates 2. 5G and 3G networks, with the distinction of being the first 3G operator in South Asia. The Company also provides International Roaming facilities in over 190 countries.Dialog GSM is the country's largest cellular network providing services to over 5 million customers across the island (Dialog, 2009) In addition to its core business of mobile telephony, Dialog Telekom operates Dialog TV, a direct-to-home satellite television service, Dialog Broadband which offers fixed-line services and broadband internet and Dialog Global which provides a wide range of international telecommunication services. The scope of this study is limited to the formulation of a ‘Competitive Strategic Plan’ for Dialog Mobile – which is the largest revenue contributor.The total mobile subscriber base as at 31st December, 2008 was 5. 5 1 Million, out of which12% consists of post paid customers. The ARPU for post paid was Rs. 1404, while Prepaid was Rs. 319 as at 31st December 2008 (Dialog, 2009). Competitive Strategy 7 Preliminary Business Analysis Value Creation Dialog Telekom PLC’s Vision and Mission provide insight into the ways in which the company strives to create value to its customers. Vision: â€Å"To be the undisputed leader in the provision of multi sensory connectivity resulting always in the empowerment and enrichment of Lankan lives and enterprises† (Dialog, 2009).Mission: â€Å"To lead in the provision of technology enabled connectivity touching multiple human senses and faculties, through committed adherence to customer driven, responsive and flexible business processes and through the delivery of quality service and leading edge technology unparalleled by any other spurred by an empowered set of dedicated individuals who are driven by an irrepressible desire to work as one towards a common goal in the truest sense of the team spirit (Dialog, 2009). Competitive Strategy 8 Figure 1 Value Creation Customers’ perceived benefit CS =PB – MP Value Created PF = MP – PC Organizational costBeing a mobile telecom service provider in a nutshell the company provides value to society by enabling people to be accessible at any time from any place at an affordable price. With regard to the ‘reason for the company’s existence’ it would be prudent to initially take into account the following requirements/characteristics of mobile telecommunication; †¢ The existence of significant entry barriers due to the need for approval from TRC (Telecommunication Regulatory Commission) for commencement of operations Competitive Strategy 9 †¢ Extremely high capital and operational expenditure requirements for nfrastructure (base stations, towers, contact center and service outlets, systems) and maintenance †¢ The requirement for special ized knowledge regarding every aspect of Mobile communication †¢ The need for a significant workforce in order to start operations and maintain status quo post commencement †¢ An extended payback period resulting in the need for revenue generation in order to be sustainable (consumption of the service sans significant profit generation is not financially viable) All aspects mentioned above make it impossible for a single or small group of individuals to replicate the production of mobile telecommunication.This is in line with the reflections of Coase (1937) who stated that firms are more efficient at coordinating activities in comparison to markets. Dialog Telekom would have the benefit of economies of scale & economies of team production, thus drastically reducing cost of production. The other significant advantage is the common ownership of productive resources such as engineering, legal, IT, accounting, charging etc. Competitive Strategy 10 Micro Economic Analysis Cost StructureDialog Telekom being a mobile network operator has to collaborate with many suppliers and stakeholders in the value chain in order to run the operations and provide sufficient value to the customer and thereby earn profits. Figure 2 DTL cost structure Banks, Finance companies Suppliers of support services such as dealers & franchisees Government taxes Network equipment suppliers Dialog Telekom Other suppliers of capital items – PCs, headsets etc Hand set dealers & retailers Direct costs – Airtime and SIM card retailersCustomers Competitive Strategy 11 The above diagram shows a ‘helicopter’ view of the various stakeholders and the way in which cash flows in and out of the company. The key source of revenue is the Corporate and retail consumer base. Table 1 Direct costs Table 2 Operational costs Figure 3 Value chain Network related costs formed a major portion of direct costs, while selling expenses formed a major portion of operational costs (Dialo g, 2009). Competitive Strategy 12 Five Forces Analysis Figure 4 Five forces analysisThreat of new entrants Threat posed is relatively high not withstanding significant entry barriers ICT company ‘Maxis’ is poised to launch operations to become the 6th mobile operator – Supplier power Many suppliers Suppliers currently wield relatively low power – Existing rivalry amongst competitors 04 fixed line operators 05 Mobile operators 29 ISPs Intense rivalry amongst competitors – Buyer power Buyer power is relatively high Switching costs are low Many mobile operators to choose from Threat of substitution VOIP and CDMA can be considered substitutes However, hreat posed is minimal – Competitive Strategy 13 Existing Rivalry Amongst Competitors There are currently 04 mobile operators that could be considered direct competitors to Dialog, namely Mobitel, TIGO, Hutch & Bharthi Airtel. The biggest competitor currently is Mobitel, with a market share of appro ximately 18% in comparison to Dialog’s 53% (Bartleet Mallory stockbrokers, 2008). Mobitel follows an extremely reactive strategy, where it mirrors every action undertaken by Dialog. For example, Mobitel launched 3G service soon after it was launched by Dialog.Mobitel also follows predatory pricing techniques by constantly undercutting the prices set by Dialog in a bid to lure customers away. Bharathi Airtel, the latest player in the industry is a market giant in India, with over 100 Million subscribers and a market share of over 25% (Report Buyer, 2009). Airtel’s strategy has always been providing affordable mobile services to customers. TIGO, which was formally known as Celltel concentrates more on the Prepaid market. TIGO was the first player to provide ‘per second billing’ facilities to customers.Hutch while being a dominant player in India is more of a fringe player in Sri Lanka that also emphasizes on the Prepaid segment. Threat Of New Entrants While barriers to entry into the market are relatively high, there are quite a few players that have either entered or are in the process of entering the market. One such player is Maxis, a Malaysian company which already has operations in India and Indonesia. Maxis also owns 44% of shares at SLT (Bartleet Mallory stockbrokers, 2008). While Maxis would Competitive Strategy 14 further erode Dialog’s market share its strategy might be less predatory in comparison to some players.Other players with plans to enter the Sri Lankan market are Reliance Mobile and MTNL, both Indian companies. Reliance Mobile, like Airtel is also a giant in the Indian market constantly at war with the latter for the number 01 position. The Power Of Suppliers There are many suppliers of mobile infrastructure components in the industry. These suppliers supply products such as base station components, cell switching components and services such as base station assembly, tower assembly and switching optimization . Vendors include Huawei, Sun, Ericsson etc.Dialog Telekom being an industry giant and the fact that there are numerous vendors means that the influence of the vendors is less in comparison to the power wielded by Dialog. Furthermore mobile service providers purchase products in large quantities over a long period of time. This would also include the purchase of services such as assembly and maintenance. Securing such contracts are extremely important from the supplier’s perspective. Vendors such as Dialog due to its enormous influence in the local industry will also influence the research and development process of the vendors and the type of technology that is developed.For example, the adoption of 3G technology would have dictated the priorities of the vendors in terms of the type of technology that should be introduced to the market. Vendors in general have high fixed costs such as R and low incremental costs thus making it extremely important that they secure profitable contracts with mobile operators. Competitive Strategy 15 The Power Of Buyers In stark contrast to the vendors, the power of consumers is high. This is due to the low switching costs. A new SIM only costs approximately Rs. 00; hence customers do not have to spend a great deal if they want to switch operators. This power wielded by the consumer is only compounded by the presence of many mobile operators in the industry. The fact that these operators also include giants such as Bhrarthi Airtel only result in providing the buyers more bargaining power with their current operator. SWOT Analysis Strengths The main strengths of Dialog are threefold, one its brand name, two its vast infra structure and three the financial backing from its parent company Axiata.According to Perera (2008) from the Asian Tribune, the company was voted the number 1 brand for two consecutive years with a brand value of Rs. 12. 324 million in 2006 and Rs. 12. 401 million in 2007. The company was also voted number 1 amongst the top ten companies in April 2008. Innovation has always been one of Dialog’s strengths; the company was the first to launch SMS, MMS, Song catcher, mobile commerce, mobile e mail, information on demand etc in the region. Dialog was presented ‘the most innovative brand of the year’ award in recognition of this fact at the SLIM brand excellence awards.Competitive Strategy 16 In terms of infra structure and reach Dialog Telekom has over 1200 base stations spanning all provinces and has over 100 customer service centers, which is more than any other company in the country. Dialog operates 2. 5G and 3G networks. It is also linked to over 200 global destinations via international roaming (Dialog, 2009). Axiata group Berhad is the emerging leader in Asian mobile communications. It has controlling interest in Dialog Telekom along with many other subsidiaries in the South East Asian region.The continuous financial support provided by Axiata for Dialog Teleko m is one of its key strengths and has had a great impact on the development and expansion of the company. Dialog in return has been a significant contributor of profits for Axiata. Weaknesses One of the key weaknesses of Dialog Telekom is its increasingly high costs. A feature of many conglomerates that experience rapid growth is the inefficiencies that ‘silently creep in’. Total costs increased by 40% as at December 2008, with costs of finance increasing by 233% and depreciation by 81% (Dialog, 2009).Dialog also has a 3500 strong workforce which has resulted in overlapping scope of work across many divisions and units. The increasing size of the company has also lead to inefficient processes and unnecessary beurocracy. As a result it would be more and more challenging for the company to make swift changes in its strategic direction. Bigger companies also have the added danger of being further distanced from the end consumer of their products and services. This danger i s also a reality due to many personnel being unaware of VOC (Voice Competitive Strategy 17 f the customer), thus resulting in policies that aren’t necessarily customer centric in nature. Other weaknesses include its legacy systems. Most of its systems require upgrades or changes due to the strain imposed by the rapidly growing customer base and advances in technology over the years. However such changes cannot be made within a short timeframe and huge amount of financial resources and time are required to successfully implement changes. Opportunities Current mobile penetration in Sri Lanka is estimated to be around 50% with room for a further 20% in the short term (Lanka Business Online, 2009).At the end of 2008 there were 11. 087 million subscribers with an annual growth rate of 39% which is a drop from 48% in 2007 and 61% in 2006. Provinces such as North West, North Central, Sabaragamuwa, East and north have a fixed line distribution of below 10% and therefore provide ample opportunity for increased mobile penetration. Threats The main threats associated with the mobile industry are the increasing number of competitors and the global economic impact on customer spending patterns. The increasing competition has lead to huge price wars which has in turn negatively affected all the players in the industry.This trend could have a long term impact on research and development and the investment into new technologies. Therefore even though companies Competitive Strategy 18 might feel that they are able to remain competitive in the short term it could result in long term reduction in the value provided to consumers. Dialog is not immune to this problem, but rather it is has reacted to the price wars by drastically reducing the tariffs and by providing customers with packages that include 1000 minutes outgoing free call charges. Furthermore the rate of penetration is also on a reducing trend.Market Structure & Customer Behavior The telecommunication industry i n Sri Lanka consists of a few key players. As mentioned prior, the industry consists of 05 mobile operators and 04 fixed line operators. 100% of the mobile communication market share is owned by these 05 players. There are also significant barriers to entry. A firm would require very large financial resources to start operations. Existing dominant companies would also have influence over the suppliers and essential resources such as a qualified and skilled workforce, network infrastructure and dealer network.New comers would have to negotiate terms with the same vendors who would have more leverage due to their existing contracts with the incumbent players. New entrants would also face barriers such as requiring approval and licensing from the Telecommunications Regulatory Commission for the commencement of operations. The success of any startup company in the industry would also depend on its own brand recognition (from operations in other countries), since it would have to compete with companies that have a loyal customer base with significant brand recognition locally.The type of VAS (Value Added services) provided by the players in the industry are to a large Competitive Strategy 19 extent homogenous in nature. All these factors are indicative of an Oligopolistic market structure. The telecommunication industry is also a reducing cost industry. This is due to the fact that as the number of players in the industry increases the suppliers of network infrastructure would experience economies of scale. This would result in lower input costs for the mobile operators who also purchase items in bulk quantities.With respect to customer behavior patterns, customers are generally price elastic; thus as a rule when prices are increased by a given percentage, usage reduces by a larger percentage. However, this behavior pattern cannot be taken for granted since there are various other factors that have an impact on the usage patterns of customers. Dialog Telekom PLC Pe rformance Review for 2008 The customer base grew to 5. 51 Million at the end of 2008 recording a 29% growth in comparison to 2007 (Dialog, 2009) Table 3 DTL subscriber growth Table 4 DTL revenue growth Competitive Strategy 20Figure 5 DTL revenue growth – Investor forum 2008 Average revenue per user had dropped by 23% for Prepaid and 17% for Postpaid respectively. This was due to aggressive price wars by the competitors which resulted in Dialog significantly reducing its tariffs. However, the reduction in prices did not significantly increase the amount of usage due to reduced elasticity of demand, while the 29% increase in customer share was conservative at best. Prepaid revenue contribution was 48%, while postpaid revenue contribution was 29%. VAS account for almost 10% of the total revenue (Dialog, 2009) Table 5 DTL Direct cost comparisonTable 6 DTL Operational cost comparison Competitive Strategy 21 As captioned there was a 48% increase in direct costs and a 36% increase i n operational costs YoY (year on year). This was due to an increase in International telecommunication levy & frequency fees, increased telco depreciation, an increase in network costs (driven by increased energy costs) and an increase in customer related costs. Increases in operational costs were due to increased operations (increased number of base stations), increased maintenance costs and inflationary pressure. Figure 6 DTL Quarterly revenue growthFigure 7 DTL Subscriber growth Competitive Strategy 22 There was a noticeable reduction in the subscriber and revenue growth between the second and fourth quarters of 2008. However, quarterly growth was 10. 7% as at Q4 which the highest since Q2 2006. Table 7 DTL Financial performance snap shot Profit after tax was a negative Rs. 1. 5 Billion. This was due to many factors such as: – Rising energy and transport costs – Local and global Macro economic downturn – Reduced elasticity levels – Inflation – P redatory price wars and marketing tactics of competitors Competitive Strategy 23Macro Economic Analysis Figure 8 Business cycle Peak Peak Trough Recession Expansion One business cycle time The global economic crisis which started in mid 2007 and worsened in 2008 inevitably had an impact on the Sri Lankan economy which also had to contend with a civil war for the last three decades. The global economy is currently facing a recession, largely due to mishandling of debts in the U. S which eventually had an impact on the global economy. Some analysts are hopeful that the ‘worst is over’ and that the real GDP has passed the ‘trough’ stage and that the economy might be on the rebound.The 30 year long war has lead to immense war related spending by the government with less attention given to development. In a bid to retrieve the money government taxes Competitive Strategy 24 have been regularly increased, thus having a negative impact on customer’s disposab le income and resulting spending patterns. The global economic crisis only added ‘fuel to the fire’ with millions of workers losing their jobs worldwide. This in turn had a ripple effect on the country’s expatriates who are a great source of foreign income.Foreign remittances are used to take care of 70% of the country’s trade deficit (Pushparanjan, 2008). These expatriates were amongst the first to be retrenched and forced to return to Sri Lanka. This situation was compounded by reduced demand for goods and services produced locally, thus resulting in widening balance of payments and closure of companies that rely on exports. Garment companies for example account for 3 Million dollars in foreign income annually, of which 50% is reinvested in fabrics and machinery (Samath, 2009).The resulting loss of jobs for thousands of people in the local industry has a direct impact on their overall spending on goods and services. This domino effect has indirectly resu lted in low mobile usage and adoption of new services resulting in a reduction of net profits. However, the end to the military conflict in Sri Lanka after 26 years has resulted in a positive outlook for the country’s economy. The all share price index rose to a 7 month high and the central bank of Sri Lanka has shifted its forecast from 2. 5% growth to 4. 5 to 5% growth by the end of the year (Shiyin, 2009).The government has already laid out plans for massive development initiatives in the North of the country. This augurs well for the economy as a whole and the mobile industry in particular since it would result in increased Competitive Strategy 25 employment opportunities which would in turn hopefully translate to increased mobile usage. Economic Forecast The rate of inflation is expected to be around 7% in 2010 and an average of 6. 5% in 2009. GDP growth rate is expected to improve from 2. 5% to 4. 5 – 5% by end 2009 due to the end of military operations ( Figure 9 Sri Lanka GDP analysisAs shown the projected trade deficit for Sri Lanka is 9% of GDP for 2009. The trade deficit has been increasing YoY (Colombo Page, 2009) Competitive Strategy 26 Figure 10 Sri Lanka inflation trend Projected inflation rates are single digit figures; i. e. approximately 9%. This is a reduction from 14% in the previous year. To support growth, Sri Lanka in December unveiled a 16 billion rupees ($140 million) stimulus package and reduced the interest rates to 16. 5% from 17% (Thomas, 2009). Taxes imposed on mobile users in 2007 were 7. % Mobile Subscriber Levy and a ‘usage insensitive’ 5o rupee tax on subscriptions. The 50 rupee tax was later dropped and the MSL was increased to 10% in 2009. VAT was reduced to 12% in 2009 from 15% in the previous year Competitive Strategy 27 Figure 11 Sri Lanka mobile taxes This amended levy of 10% is beneficial to consumers who spend less than Rs. 2000 per month. However, overall this tax will have a negative impact on total consumer usage (Samarajiva, 2007) Driving Forces Driving Forces in the Local Industry Changes In Long Term Industry Growth Rate As at end 2008 there were 11. 87mn mobile subscribers in the market, a penetration rate of 54%, and annual growth of 39%. However, this rate of increase is slower than in previous years -48% in 2007 and 61% in 2006 (Sri Lanka communications report, 2008). With increased competition and predatory tactics it would become harder for any given company to experience substantial growth in the coming years. Competitive Strategy 28 Entry Of Major Multinational Firms With the entry of firms such as Bharthi Airtel and Reliance mobile in the pipeline existing firms would have to become more and more competitive in order to survive.Innovative Business Models Many of the firms are developing innovative business models in the foreign markets. Companies have yet to implement extremely innovative models in the local industry. However Bharthi Airtel has initiated this trend with its ‘simple plans’ theory, where unlike the rest of the players in the market it has distanced itself from the concept of multiple rates during different hours to different networks (off peak, peak, weekend etc) Exponential Growth In Network Bandwith The bandwith provided by broadband internet providers has significantly increased over the years.In the past 512 kbps was considered ‘fast’ and was the norm, now however, most operators provide speeds of over 2GB. This has changed the usage patterns and reasons for use by consumers. Regulatory Changes Certain players such as Bharthi Airtel were vying for the implementation of ‘number portability’, but this was not implemented by the government citing security concerns. The government also recently requested all mobile operators to ensure that both postpaid and prepaid customers are registered with their rightful owners. This has had a negative impact on the sale of prepaid connectio ns.Competitive Strategy 29 Reduced Consumer Spending Consumer spending has significantly reduced and has had an impact on the bottom line of most players in the market. Elasticity levels which were around 1 – 1. 5 in 2006, reduced to 0. 7 in 2008 (Dialog, 2009). This has forced companies to drastically reduce spending and in certain instances even retrench employees to reduce costs. The cost cutting measures will have an impact on training and development and R, which in turn would have an impact on the long term. Unemployment The unemployment rate which was steadily reducing over the years (6% in 2007, 5. % in 2008) is bound to face a reversal in 2009, due to the global recession. The central bank of Sri Lanka has requested the government firms to put recruitment on hold (Lanka Business Online) till the economy improves. This would have a direct impact on plans for expansion any organization. Increased Taxes Government taxes on mobile users has been in a constant state of fl ux and a reason for much concern amongst the mobile operators and consumers alike. This volatility of the government’s policies with regard to taxes will have a negative impact on the growth of the industry. Competitive Strategy 0 Driving Forces In The Global Industry The Internet And Digitization Of Content Internet usage in the country is still in its early stages. However one of the threats the internet poses with the increased bandwith provided by ISPs is the widespread adoption of VOIP, since this service would be provided FOC. This could become a direct threat to the telecommunication industry in the future. Strategic Plan For Dialog Mobile Short Term Enhanced Cost Management Cost optimization is crucial for an organization to remain competitive. As companies expand inefficiencies result as a byproduct.Dialog is no exception, a bullish strategy for expansion resulted in reduced retained profits and a ‘bloated middle management’. A loss of Rs. 2. 88 Billion in 2008, compared to a profit of Rs. 8. 91 billion in 2007 is ample reason for rigorous attention to the prevention of revenue leakage and prudent investments with an eye on the long term. Competitive Strategy 31 Increased Focus On Customer Retention Often companies can get swept away by ‘concepts’, especially ones that give you a false sense of safety such as Customer Relationship Management, Customer Experience Management, Customer Lifecycle Management etc.Most companies pay ‘lip service’ to these practices and they often believe that they ‘do’ practice it. However there is often a huge gap between actual customer satisfaction levels and the satisfaction levels perceived by the company. Rather than romanticizing these concepts, companies should actually practice it religiously. In the case of Dialog, it would mean ensuring that all customer facing staff have the right qualities for the job. Skills can be taught, but attitude is harder to chan ge.The true essence of customer service should be instilled and practiced constantly. This should be backed by the right policies and coordination amongst all stakeholder divisions in order to ensure that the customer’s needs are continuously met beyond expectation. Process Optimization To Support Customer Centric Objectives All processes as far as possible would have to be tailored with the customer in mind. However, most business processes tend to be ‘inward looking’, There is a constant ‘tug of war’ between various stakeholders who seldom work in synergy.This is due to conflicting interests and lack of ‘customer visibility’. For example Finance and Credit departments create their processes with the sole aim of managing finances and credit collection, which tends to focus on the short term profit, rather than long term customer retention. The challenge then is for the process management team to ensure that all cross functional customer related processes are driven by customer centric objectives. This would also Competitive Strategy 32 include the removal of all non value adding processes and continuous review