Sunday, March 31, 2019
Zimmerman Telegraph seismic disturbance and SummaryMichael DeanDennis G. MedinaThe Zimmerman Telegraph was the catalyst that threw the joined States into World state of war I. In the Zimmerman Telegraph, the German escritoire of State for contradictory Affairs sends to the German rector of Mexico a telegram stating that they want Mexico to locomote their ally and in originate Mexico would regain their wooly-minded territory from the linked States (Zimmerman, 1917). This caused the American reality, who were against the war, to become enraged and want to join the fray.The historical con schoolbook of this document is that the United States was trying to stay out of World war I, and the general consensus of Americans did non want the United States to go to war. However, with the finding of this telegram Americans became outraged and cute to join the war. Many historians say that without the telegraph the United States would non get to joined the war. The primary source d ocument, being the Zimmerman Telegraph, is contextually important to this while collectible to the fact that without it being found the United States might non have gone to war.The Zimmerman Telegraph is a piece of text direct from the German deposit of State for Foreign Affairs to the German Minister of Mexico. It was sent in 1917, and its purpose was to gain an alliance with Mexico. A drumhead of this document is that the Germans were going to start unrestricted hoagy warfare the world-class of February. The document in like manner went to state that if the United States became un-neutral that they would ally themselves with Mexico, and in plough they would help Mexico retake their original territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The document closed by saying that the President of Mexico should also reach out to japan to levy the war as an ally as well (Zimmerman, 1917).This source was improbably important when it was uncovered. Due to this document, the United States entered World War I. This source is also important because it showed how important intelligence gathering is and was during wartime. Due to Britain having a deciphering room for the German cipher, they were able to accurately break the encryption on the telegram. This precession on intelligence has been a main focus during war times. The designate that this provides for the society that produced it was that the Germans were terrified of the United States entering the war. We can see this due to the fact that they did not want America to join the war, and if they were to join they valued Mexico to be an ally to help fight the United States (Zimmerman, 1917). The consequences of send the telegram and the telegram being rewrite was the United States entered World War I. Because the United States entered the war, the Allies were able to defeat the Germans and their own allies.The evaluation that I entrust to this primary sources is that it was an extremely important intelli gence victory for the Allies. Due to the baring of the telegram, the United States was able to guard sure Mexico did not approaching them. As well due to the outrage of the American public, the United States entered World War I. What I inferred from the document was that the Germans were scared of America. They were terrified of the United States entering the war, because they knew of the force-out that Americans troops would bring to the fight. This is why they were going to try and get Mexico to attack American soil. Due to the efforts of the intelligence professionals who discovered the telegram, the war took a turn for the best for the Allied armies.Primary Source DocumentZimmermann, Arthur. 2009. Zimmermann Telegram, 1917. Zimmerman Note, 1917 1. Points of View telephone extension Center, EBSCOhost (accessed March 19, 2017). https//proxy.nvc.alamo.edu4443/login?url=http//search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=pwhAN=21213051site=eds-livePrimary Source DocumentForeign Relations of the United States, 1917, Supplement I, p. 147-148The Ambassador in Great Britain (Page) to the depository of State London, February 24, 1917, 1 p.m.Received 830 p.m.5747. My 5746, February 24, 8 a.m. For the President and the Secretary of State. Balfour had handed me the text of a cipher telegram from Zimmermann, German Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, to the German Minister of Mexico, which was sent via Washington and relayed by Bernstorff of January 19. You can probably obtain a copy of the text relayed by Bernstorff from the cable office in Washington. The first group is the number of the telegram, 130, and the endorse is 13042, indicating the number of the label used. The last group but two is 97556, which Zimmermanns signature. I shall send you by mail a copy of the cipher text and of the decode into German and meanwhile I give you the English supplanting as followsWe intend to begin on the 1st of February unrestricted submarine warfare. We shall endeav or in spite of this to follow the United States of America neutral. In the event of this not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal of alliance on the following basis make war together, make peace together, liberal financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The settlement in detail is unexpended to you. You will inform the President of the above most secretly as soon as the outbreak of war with the United States of America is received and add the suggestion that he should, on his own initiative, invite Japan to immediate adherence and at the same time mediate amidst Japan and ourselves. Please call the Presidents attention to the fact that the ruthless physical exercise of our submarines now offers the prospect of compelling England in a few months to make peace.SignedZimmermann.The receipt of this knowledge has so greatly exercised the British political sympathies that they have lost n o time in communicating it to me to mail to you, in order that our Government may be able without withstand to make such dis patch as may be requisite in view of the threatened invasion of our territory.Early in the war, the British Government obtained possession of a copy of the German cipher code used in the above meat and have made it their dividing line to obtain copies of Bernstorffs cipher telegrams to Mexico, amongst others, which are sent back to London and deciphered here. This accounts for their being able to decipher this telegram from the German Government to their typical in Mexico and also for the delay from January 19 until now in their receiving information. This carcass has hitherto been a jealously guarded secret and is only divulged now to you by the British Government in view of the extraordinary tidy sum and their friendly feeling towards the United States. They earnestly request that you will keep the source of your information and the British Government s method of obtaining it profoundly secret, but they adjust no prohibition on the publication of Zimmermanns telegram itself.The copies of this and other telegrams were not obtained in Washington but were brought in Mexico.I have thanked Balfour for the do his Government has rendered us and suggest that a private official message of thanks from our Government to him would be beneficial.I am informed that this information has not yet been given to the Japanese Government but I think it not unlikely that when it reaches them they may make a public statement on it in order to clear up their position regarding the United States and prove their good faith to their Allies.The Essential Documents of American register was compiled by Norman P. Desmarais and James H. McGovern of Providence College.
What Factors Influence cyberspace Use Among Teens English Langu period turn upThe meshwork has become part of todays teenagers culture and they ar very acquainted(predicate) on how to workout and navigate in it. This paper reflects on the parts that learn meshwork usage among teens based on a survey compiled by Pew cyberspace American bread and butter Project on a sample of over 1,000 adolescents amid the ages of 12 to 17 who were interviewed randomly by ph cardinal. It prognosticates that 9 out of 10 ingress the meshing regularly which is an change magnitude of 75% in comparison to the division 2000. This racy number is in contrast to the ascertainings that lone(prenominal) 66% of American adults use the internet. The study barely showed that about teenagers first accessed the internet between the age of 10 and 12. 87% admitted using the internet regularly, with 52% of them accessing the internet free-and-easy, an summation from 42% in 2000. About 50% of t hese teenagers, their families utilize a speedier broadband connection with the relief using opposite means much(prenominal) as dial-up connections. Teens were engraft to use the internet for instant put across, online blogs, initiating online chats and sending e-mails. In the survey, 75% use instant messaging compared to 42% of adults as a means of communion with their first mate age mates. The survey also indicates that 75% of todays teens use the internet to analyze bare-asss which is a sharp increase from 38% in the year 2000. University of Diegos technology trackers such as Susannah Stern expect instant messaging to keep growing exponentially due to peer influence. Though Teens interviewed matt-up that internet use was a source of indispensable fun and a means of communication and research. Amanda Lenhart, a Pew researcher who participated in conducting the study, launch that Teens are very selective-theyre smart about their technology use. They use it for the kinds of things they command to do. The older teenage girls between ages 15 to 17 contrasted the myth of the tech-savvy boys since they were found to use the internet more than their male counterparts.Literature reviewTo pick up factors influencing net profit usage among the youths such as demographics and socio-economic and peer influence, a lit review of the available Pew research has been conducted, focusing on factors influencing teenagers access to the internet or World Wide Web except for e-mailing purposes. concord to the literature, students are the main users of the Internet. Jones and Madden (2002) conducted a study on high naturalise and junior college students Internet usage. Browsing the Internet was a daily activity 73% of these students used the Internet more than the library for research. 79 percent of the students agreed that Internet use has had a positive affect on their academic experience (Jones and Madden, 2002). Princeton Research Associates on behalf of Pew Internet American Life Project conducted nationwide phone interviews, and did an analysis on how respondents penetrated the Internet. The data results show that all 59% of the general population penetrated the Internet less than 86% of students (Jones and Madden, 2002).Study Framework and Hypothesis Development at that place are various factors influencing internet use among teens. This review provides a base for this study based on the Pew Internet American Life Project survey and shall primarily test on the influencing factors such as demographic and social-economic factors. Testable hypothesis shall then be proposed.Demographic factorsThe particular factors of gender, run away/ethnicity, location of residence and age were very crucial in find out internet usage among the teenagers in relation to their education status. There was a general increase for both students and non-students access to the internet. There was also an increase in the proportion of teenagers who accesse d the internet across common races in the fall in States such as Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics. However, these increases fuddle not been uniform across these groups. about high school drop-outs were observed not to hit been on the internet for the past one year with only less than 33% state to having accessed it. This was in sharp contrast to the over 90% of junior college students who feed had regular access to the internet in the age bracket of 18 to 19. Internet access tended to increase with increasing levels of education and was highly used by junior college students and post-secondary students. The widening gap between those in school and the drop-outs access to the internet is projected to rise due to increasing boost and facilitation of internet access points in schools. If older students already in college are exposed and encouraged more than younger students in high school, as is normally the case, age will become an important demographic factor since internet usage prevalence will be higher in older students. Internet usage was clearly greater among whites than any other race especially among males. 71.8% of white males accessed the in comparison to 50.5% of Hispanic males and 40.7% of dusky males. The open-ended question on where a particular teen accessed the internet was phrased and the answers tabulated using the categories of home, school, library, friends/neighbors, and other. Most teens were found to be more comfortable accessing the internet at a friends home whereby over 34.7% of males and 29.3% of the teens responded to this. Although access points such as the library were chosen by only one in eight, this was an feeler from 4.7% in 2000 to a current12.5%.Economic factorsTeenagers from low income and high poverty areas have been most disadvantaged in accessing the internet. A survey carried on teen Internet usage reveals social and economic disparities (Taylor et al., 2003). A relationship between incomes, race and education was a lso observed. Levels of education were higher in Whites than any other minorities whereby the proportion of whites who completed high school was more. This had a control impact on the number of internet users. Teenagers from low-income households estimated at three million, most of them black, have no access to the internet. Therefore, these kids may not find adults who would other teach them on how to responsibly use the internet. Daniel Bassil, president of Cabrini Connections, notes that, Even the kids that have access dont necessarily have people mentoring them to use the information to their great advantage. Teens from low-income backgrounds are less likely to access the internet for services such as instant messaging and emailing as a way of communication since most of their friends are not online more frequently. This finding may indicate a difference in choice of pith creation versus content consumption in different socio economic groups (Bosah, 1998).c) genial factorsF ree and unlimited Internet access When freshmen register today, they get a studentID card, a meal card, and most, important, a free personal e-mail account. Theyve got noonline service fees to pay, no limits to their while logged on, and computer labs open fortheir convenience round-the-clock. Its an Internet users dream.2. Huge blocks of unorganized time Most college students attend classes for twelve tosixteen arcminutes per week. The rest of the time is their own to read, study, go to movies orparties, join clubs, or explore the new environment outside their campus walls. Manyforget all those other activities and decoct on one thing the Internet.3. Newly-experienced freedom from levyal control outdoor(a) from home and theirparents watchful eyes, college students long have exercised their new freedom byengaging in pranks, talking to friends to all hours of the night, sleeping with theirboyfriends and girlfriends, and eating and boozing things Mom and Dad would notapprove of. Today, they utilize that freedom by hanging out in the MUDs and chat roomsof cyberspace, and no parent can complain about online service fees or their refusal to eatdinner party with the family or alleviate out with chores.4. No monitor or outlaw of what they say or do online When they move on to thejob worldly concern, college students may find suspicious bosses peeking over their shoulder oreven monitoring their online time and usage. Even e-mail to co-workers could beintercepted by the wrong party. In college, no ones watching. Computer lab monitorstend to be student volunteers whose only responsibility is to assist anyone who needs helpunderstanding how to use the Internet not tell them what they can or cannot do on it.5. wide encouragement from faculty and administrators Students understand that theirschools administration and faculty want them to draw and quarter full use of the Internets vastresources. Abstaining from all Net use is rarely an option in roughly large classes,professors place required dustup materials solely on the Net and engage in their only oneon-one contact with students through e-mail Administrators, of course, want to see theirmajor investments in computers and Internet access justified.6. Adolescent training in similar activities By the time most kids get to college, theywill have spent long time staring at video game terminals, closing off the world around themwith walkmans, and engaging in that rapid-fire clicking of the TV remote. Even if theydidnt get introduced to the Internet in high school, those other activities have madestudents well-suited to slide into undirected Web surfing, skill-testing MUDs, and rat-a-tattatchat room dialogue.7. The desire to escape college stressors Students feel the pressures of devising topgrades, fulfilling parental expectations, and, upon graduation, facing fierce competitionfor good jobs. The Internet, ideally, would help make it easier for them to do theirnecessary course work as chop-chop and efficiently as possible. Instead, they turn to theirNet friends to hide from their difficult feelings of fear, anxiety, and depression.8. Social intimidation and alienation With as many as 30,000 students on somecampuses, students easily can get lost in the crowd. When they try to tinge out, theyoften run into even tighter clicks than the in-crowds of high school. Maybe they dontdress just or look right. But when they join the faceless community of the Internet, theyfind that with little effort they can become popular with new friends end-to-end theU.S. and in England, Australia, Germany, France, Hungary, Japan, New Zealand, andChina. Why bother trying to socialize on campus?9. A higher legal drinking age With the drinking age at twenty-one in most states,undergraduate students cant openly drink alcohol and socialize in bars. So the Internetbecomes their interpose drug of choice no ID required and no closing hour
Saturday, March 30, 2019
Mens Rea And Actus Reus Of A CrimeTwo elements comprise to the highest degree all crimes, a finable school principal (mens rea) and a guilty crook (actus reus). An act does not make a man guilty of a crime, unless his mind is also guilty. It is, on that pointfore, not the act which is guilty but one by one the man and his mind. A substantiation of an actus reus is required in every crime. Also, there is a presumption that every element of the actus reus needs proof of a consequent mens rea. Where the presumption of mens rea is not applicable, such offences are called strict liability crimes.Most crimes have the element of a mens rea. It must(prenominal) always be proved by the Prosecution that an unlawful demeanor is commit by an charge. Furthermore, it will usually have to be proven that the charge committed with guilty mind in engaging such conduct. For instance, to ensure conviction for rape in contradiction to s.2(1), 1981 Criminal Law (Rape) Act, it must be prove n by the Prosecution that the criminate committed unlawful conduct (i.e., non-consensual cozy communion with a fair sex), make loveing that no agree is inclined by the woman or being thoughtless regarding whether or not the woman was concuring (mens rea). If the guilty act (actus reus) involves the particular outcome which the abominable conduct of the accused caused, a mens rea whitethorn have to be proven by the Prosecution as well with regard to the particular outcome. The actus reus, for instance, in the crime of assault producing injury in contradiction of s.3, 1997 Non-Fatal Offences against the Person Act, is sorry act, i.e., an assault, and a distinct outcome (i.e., injury).Intention and Mens ReaIt is impossible to explore somebodys mind to determine their intentions.3The meaning of intention, in line with s.14, 1861 Offences against the Person Act, deliberated by the butterfly of Criminal Appeal in The People (DPP) v. Douglas and Hayes,4provides that whoever shal l fire at any person with the intention to carry out murder shall be guilty of a felony, whether or not it will result to any forcible harm. The Special Criminal Court convicted the appli arseholets inter alia of an offence in contradiction of s.14 of the 1861 Act. They argued successfully that the requisite intent under s.14 had not been proven. The courts judgment was conveyed by McWilliam J, stating that unless intent has actually been expressed by the accused, the intent of the accused can only be determined from a consideration of his actions and the surrounding circumstances.What the accused intend or did not intend, only he can know such. Apparently, if the accused expressed the intention to do a thing and carried on to accomplish that intention, proving that the accused acted with intent will be reasonably simple. Conversely, absentminded such an expression, intention is harder to prove and other statements expressed by the accused must be considered by a jury or settle as well as the actions of the accused and the circumstances surrounding the causal agency in coming to a decision whether intention is to be inferred or not.Omissions Liability and Actus ReusPrecisely what is meant by conduct is commonly referred to as an act. In criminal liability, an omission or a part thereof cannot attain the actus reus of a crime as a general rule. As utter by McAuley and McCutcheon,5the common law traditionally disinclines to punish omissions and to illustrate this conviction honoured example, watching an infant drowning in a shallow pool by an able-bodied person does not constitute an offence. But this dominion is also subject to exceptions.The accused in DPP v. Bartley6had been convicted of different sexual offences. Carney J on passing judgment commented that where a believable complaint of felony is presented to a officeholder, the policeman under the Common Law has no discretion in not investigating the complaint and arrest the indentified offender. This affair if not carried out potently constitutes on the part of the policeman an illegality and makes him liable to prosecution on indictment. Palles CB remarked in Creagh v. Gamble7that a person shall be brought to justice where a thinkable suspicion of a felony is present against him. The Peace Officer is entitled and duty bound as well to apprehend him. This Common Law principle still applies. This was substantiated in R. v. Dytham.8Concurrence of Mens Rea and Actus ReusIf mens rea is to be proven by the Prosecution, it must moreover establish that mens rea existed at the time of the actus reus. At times whether the actus reus and mens rea concurred may not be apparent. The accused in Kaitamaki v. R.9was charged with rape. Having sexual intercourse with a woman without consent is the actus reus of rape. Knowing that it is non-consensual or whether there is consent or not by being reckless is the mens rea of rape. It was established that the woman initially consented to hav e sexual intercourse with the accused. In spite of the incidental withdrawal of the womans consent, the accused persisted and did not desist from having sexual intercourse. It was contended by the accused that at the time of the actus reus (i.e., penetration), consent was present, hence, he did not have a mens rea. Lord Scarman, the Privy Council, rejected this contention by stating that the act of sexual intercourse is continuing and ends only with withdrawal. Accordingly, the woman had the right to withdraw her consent at whatever time during sexual intercourse, even though she had initially given consent to penetration. The case of Kaitamaki v. R.10can be referred to in sustaining the proffer that an actus reus entails a continuing act, and as such, in order to ensure a conviction, the accused must be proven to have the required mens rea at some period during its continuation, although it is not essential to establish that at the first gear the requisite mens rea was present w ith the accused.
Friday, March 29, 2019
The center of the Filipino varietyThis investigating assesses the extent of the Philippine Revolution had on the Philippine culture. In aim to analyze the effectuate of the variation on the political structure of the Philippines, the investigation pass on involve what the how it was several years beforehand the Philippine Revolution, to a fault known as the nation Power Revolution. The political structure by and by the Philippine Revolution entrust alike be researched. This research will be done to evaluate the changes in the over completely political structure. The dickens primary sources for this investigation include Monina Mercados A plenty Power The Philippine Revolution of 1986 An Eyewitness History along with Florentino Rodaos book, The Philippine Revolution of 1986 banausic Lives In Extraordinary Times.The two sources that will be used will be analyzed according to its origin, propose, limitations and value.Summary of EvidenceThe online article What Was Peo ple Power? states that the revolution was a non-violent movement of united Filipino citizens. They were offer by Corazon Cory Aquino, the wife of Benigno Aquino, a leading opponent of the rule of chairwo universe Ferdinand Marcos, an advocate for the opposition of their Nationalist Party. This movement was a success because it direct to the overthrow of Ferdinand Marcos. After the overthrow, Corazon Aquino won presidency.Ferdinand Marcos was a corrupt leader. He was chair of the Philippines for twenty years (for two terms), from 1965 to 1986.1After military personnel War II, Ferdinand Marcos emerged from World War II with the reputation of being the greatest Filipino opposition leader of the war and the most decorated soldier in the U.S. fortify forces.2Before being chairperson of the Philippines, Marcos had been the leader of the Ang Maharlika. The Ang Maharlika was a secret safeguard that Ferdinand Marcos had created. It was said that this secret electric defense was mad e up of spies and revolutionaries (assassins), in actually, the resistance consisted of counterfeiters, thieves, and gunmen. The Ang Maharlika was a guerilla force in northern Luzon. As electric chair Marcos excelled in achieving infrastructure development along with international diplomacy but despite these great achievements he, along with his administration, was extremely authoritarian, corrupt they were also politically repressive, and they also violated human rights.In 1983, Benigno Aquino Jr., a senator and governor of Tarlac who inappropriate Marcos, was assassinated due to a gunshot to his head. President Marcos, along with the take a breather of his politics, was involved in the assassination. This assassination became the catalyst of the People Power Revolution. From 1972 up through 1981, Marcos government passed a martial law that repressed the passels freedom. He claimed that it was to create New Society based on new friendly and political value. Despite the laws success in reducing crime, it frightened any(prenominal) political opponents causing them to go into exile. The same goes for the rest of the people. They could not switch a say in anything. Things were active to change for the better formerly Ferdinand Marcos was exiled.After the revolution, Corazon Aquinos presidency was the start of democracy for the Filipinos. The new government, the Constitutional bearing gave them a new constitution. It was ratified on February 2, 1987. The Constitution then went into effect on the eleventh of that month. It diminished presidential powers from declaring martial law. The Constitution also restored the bicameral congress.Evaluation of SourcesThe source Mercados A People Power The Philippine Revolution of 1986 An Eyewitness History was written by Monina Mercado. It tells the story of the revolution that exiled Ferdinand Marcos from power through a collection of various stories by many different people told in their own words. It was publishe d in 1987 devising it somewhat of a credible source. This is said because it was written after, if not during, the revolution. This subject bet that it contained real, current certifyation. On the other hand, being published so presently after the revolution had occurred means that it will not have all the necessary information. If it was to describe the set up of the Peoples Power Revolution, it would only mention the effects that occurred only between that one-year epoch period. It would not encompass the effects over ten or twenty years. It appears that the purpose of the source is to inform readers ab forbidden the Philippine Revolution of 1986 and her point of view on the situation. A People Power The Philippine Revolution of 1986 An Eyewitness History is limit because it is biased. The author is clearly a supporter of Corazon Aquino. She does not write active what the people on the other side of the revolution thought. The sources value is questionable. It does its pu rpose and informs readers of the revolution and it does sheds light on the events which toppled the Marcos dictatorship.The second source is The Philippine Revolution of 1986 modal(a) Lives in Extraordinary Times was published in 2001, qualification it a valuable source. This book is the most recent resource out of both of the sources. It was written by Florentino Rodao. The author of this book goes into detail round gender and ethnicity during the Revolution corruption in the second-half of the nineteenth century the circuitions intra-Asian get by the influx of refugees to Cavite, which affected the rivalry between Bonifacio and Aguinaldo the travails of the Francis back tooth friars and the hopes and fears of a Spanish soldier as seen through his letters. The purpose of this book was to describe the age in which they were ruled by the Spanish and when they were freed. With this being said, this was not a very valuable book for this investigation. It does not completely talk virtually the issue at hand, the People Power Revolution thus adjustment this book much to a greater extent. It does not go into depth about the revolution, preferably the time before it. In a sense, this book is valuable because it gives soil information on how the people were before the revolution, therefore allowing for a proportion to be made between the time periods.D. AnalysisEvery superstar kind of revolution brings about change. The Philippine Revolution, in this case brought about a positive change. After 1986, there were many more accessible and governmental changes. The Philippine Revolution brought about great social changes. The people were not to be socially repressed any more. People could say their mind without getting reprimanded. The revolution, along with all other revolutions, was a time of military and political struggle for power. This thoroughly affected the people. Even before the Peoples Power Revolution Filipinos had been military and socially repres sed because of the Spanish. After gaining their freedom, they had teeny-weeny time to be their own to be free, even if it was just for a little while. They were not technically used to having such freedom, so when Marcos became president there was not much resistance. With all the changes being made end-to-end the Philippines, it is not shocking that, socially, the country changed. This comes to show, why there was not resistance to Ferdinand Marcos in the beginning.While the Philippine revolution overthrew such a powerful, arrogant leader, it left much of the old centralized power structure unchanged. The U.S. compose retained major influence through military aid and bases. The Philippine military remained intact under Defense look Enrile, the same man who had gotten thick from political connections while serving as Defense Minister under Marcos. The new President, Corazon Aquino, was from a wealthy family. The poor were still poor, and the rich were still in charge.The Phili ppine revolution demonstrates what the power people can have when they unite and withdraw consent. The same dynamics apply, no matter what the issue. If Filipinos had decided to go on and struggle and fight for a more just division of wealth, the abolition of the military, and/ or a decentralized government that was more responsive to their needs, who knows what more amazing things they might have achieved.E. resultantTo conclude, there were social and governmental changes as a result of the Philippine Revolution. After Marcos was exiled, there was much more social freedom. Political leading could actually speak their mind and exiled. The people were given the right to enunciate their opinions and not be punished. What changed drastically was the government. The Philippines came from being an authoritarian state to a bicameral democratic country. The People Power Revolution of 1986 signified the whiz of the civilians and how they came to the aid of the military, which had long b een an instrument of repression and terror.F. SourcesBookRags Staff. 2005. Ferdinand Marcos. Available Online cited September 12, 2010 Available from http//www.bookrags.com/biography/ferdinand-marcos/.Dizon, Regina G. progress Holyoke College. http//www.mtholyoke.edu/rgdizon/classweb/worldpolitics/main.html (27 January 2010)People Power in the Philippines. http//www.fragmentsweb.org/TXT2/philiptx.html.In Defense of Marxism. http//www.marxist.com/perspectives-philippine-revolution080487.htm (30 January 2010)Kabayan Central. http//www.kabayancentral.com/book/ateneo/mb5503861.html.Mercado, Monina A. People Power The Philippine Revolution of 1986 An Eyewitness History. Manila James B. Reuter, S.J. Foundation.Morrow, Paul. Maharlika and the old-fashioned class system. http//www.pilipino-express.com/history a-culture/in-other-words/251-maharlika-and-the-ancient-class-system.html (accessed 2010).Onwar.com.USA Spain Philippine Revolution. http//www.onwar.com/aced/data/Philippines1986.htm. (2 February 2010)Rodao, Florentino, and Felice N. Rodiguez. The Philippine Revolution of 1986 Ordinary Lives in Extraordinary Times. Manila Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Roles and Activities of a Manager- Comparison of TheoriesHayley Work The main roles and activities of a conductor areManagers should run an organisation by organising structures, people and finances. Peter Drucker determine five activities of a manager, these areSetting objectives- Robin Fraser is responsible for each(prenominal) production and quality assurance he aims to realize processes less turn over intensive and more automated. In order to achieve this, he has secured a investment from the bank and plans to enjoyment these funds to increase automation.1Organising- Hazim caravan inn analyses gross sales trends of different products and after assessing customer feedback in order to make for certain that the lodge keeps with the changing market. Hazim is in charge of a team of chefs who break off late products and recipes.2Motivating and communicating- Hazim likewise demonstrates this activity, he totallyows his team of chefs to work on an individual basis on their ideas but regularly meets with them to cover any problems and ideas.3Measuring- Laura Bolton is focused on the companys finances and keeps an eye on the cash flow of the business. 4Developing- Kathryn Hannah encourages ply to try training in order the figure that mental faculty have all the skills that the business requires.5Henry Mintzberg identified ten management roles which are wherefore divided up into three categories.CategoryRolesManagerInterpersonal straw manLeaderLiaisonDavid FraserInformationalMonitorDisseminatorSpokespersonKathryn HannahLaura BoltonHazim KhanDecisionalentrepreneurDisturbance HandlerResource AllocatorNegotiatorRobin FraserHazim KhanMeasuring managerial authorisationFraser Foods fucking vizor managerial effectiveness by motivation and morale of the staff, this would be put to good use in the shop floor. Here the work is repetitive and can be challenging due to the temperatures impoverishmented to produce hygienic food. The teams are execute targe ts but have the freedom to decide how they will achieve this, on the job(p) this way has increased staff morale and flexibility. 6Another way to measure managerial effectiveness would be by the level of complaints. Fraser Foods could distribute unknown feedback forms asking questions about how the staff feel about the manager and why. The company would then be able to grasp how well the manager is performing. behavioral speculation of leaders.Macgregors Theory X and Theory Y both tire the behaviours of different management geniuss.A Theory X manager assumes that staff dislikes work, need directed, avoid any debt instrument, dull, uncreative, have no desire, see coin as the only motivation for work and view goals and objectives as caging. 7David Fraser could be described as a Theory X manager, David also tangle it was his role to make all the decisions affecting production. He didnt see the need to involve staff and believed they preferred to be told what to do and didnt want the responsibility that was the managers job, not theirs. He believed staff were make by money and should be paid bonuses if targets were exceeded8Contingency supposition of leadershipA contingency theory is based on the belief that there is no style of leadership that is applicable to all situations that may arise within a company. Hersey and Blanchards theory was based on the leader adopting an appropriate style of leadership depending on the members in the team and the situation they have found themselves in. In accord with their theory a leader can adopt one of four styles depending on how much support the team requires and the amount of direction.9 The four styles (known as S1-S4) areTelling-This leadership style is categorised as giving a lot of direction to team members. This style is recommended for use when dealing with new staff or where the work can be tedious and repetitive.Selling-This is sometimes known as the coaching approach. It is used when team members are m otivated to carry out the work but dont quite have the infallible maturity to complete the task.Participating-This style encompasses high support but exactly any direction, it is used when team members are able to do the tasks undeniable but maybe lack the confidence.Delegating-The responsibility for carrying out the task is prone to team members, this style requires high levels of maturity and competence.David Fraser mostly adopts the telling style (S1) as he felt it was his role as the boss to make all decisions.Hazim Khan style of leadership fits into S2-S4 he does this by allowing his team of chefs to use their talents to create new products for the company. He regularly meets with his team of chefs to discuss and help to solve any issues that have arisen.Theories of leadership and the proposed expansion plansBennis and midget state that there is no one right way to creation a leader, but that each has to find their own style. They did however, identify common land charac teristicsA visions to focus mindsCommunicating the visionConsistency and honesty cognisance of weaknessBennis and Nanus also state that effective leadership can move organisations from current to future state, create visions of potential opportunities for organisations.10 The managers of Fraser Foods must ensure that they effectively and clearly communicate to the staff, the vision that they have for the company such as reducing their heavy reliance on the supplier, Perkins. 11Robin must also effectively communicate his vision for increasing automation as the staff feel anxious about the impact this will have on their jobs. He must also be honest with the staff in order to ease their worries and make them feel involved in the process. 12Bibliography reason ingest dissever 242 eccentric theater of operations divide 133 Case cartoon split up 134 Case study paragraph 145 Case study paragraph 156 Case study paragraph 167 Student notes8 Case study paragraph 129 Student notes10 St udent notes11 Case study paragraph 1812 Case study paragraph 241 Case study paragraph 242 Case study paragraph 133 Case study paragraph 134 Case study paragraph 145 Case study paragraph 156 Case study paragraph 167 Student notes8 Case study paragraph 129 Student notes10 Student notes11 Case study paragraph 1812 Case study paragraph 24
Thursday, March 28, 2019
Then she run acrossed at me. I thought that she was looking at me for the first time. But then, when she rancid around behind the lamp and I unplowed feeling her slippery and oily look in back of me, over my shoulder, I understood that it was I who was looking at her for the first time. I lit a cigarette. I took a drag on the harsh, sound smoke, earlier spinning in the chair, balancing on one of the hind give the axe legs. After that I precept her there, as if shed been standing beside the lamp looking at me all night. For a few brief minutes thats all we did look at each other. I looked from the chair, balancing on one of the upraise legs. She stood, with a long and quiet hand on the lamp, looking at me. I saw her eyelids lighted up as on every night. It was then that I remembered the usual thing, when I express to her "Eyes of a blue dog." Without taking her hand off the lamp she said to me "That. Well never result that." She left the orbit, sighing &q uotEyes of a blue dog. Ive written it everywhere."I saw her walk over to the dressing table. I watched her appear in the note glass of the mirror looking at me now at the end of a back and forth of mathematical light. I watched her keep on looking at me with her great hot-coal eyes looking at me duration she opened the little box covered with pink mother of pearl. I saw her powder her nose. When she finished, she closed the box, stood up again, and walked over to the lamp once more, reflection "Im afraid that someone is dreaming about this room and revealing my secrets." And over the flame she held the same long and tremulous hand that she had been warming before sitting down at the mirror. And she said "You dont feel the cold." And I said to her "Sometimes." And she said to me "You must feel it now." And then I understood wherefore I couldnt have been alone in the seat. It was the cold that had been giving me the proof of my solitude. "N ow I feel it," I said. "And its strange because the night is quiet. by chance the sheet fell off." She didnt answer. Again she began to move toward the mirror and I turned again in the chair, keeping my back to her.
IntroductionEqual opportunities atomic itemise 18 very important in the modern workplace. Providing equal opportunities involves providing the same opportunities to all the employees and prospective employees regardless of their sex, age, disabilities, social origins, sexual orientations etc. Equal opportunities allow the employee to have rights therefore the employer is ineffectual to take advantage, discriminate or manipulate staff. Employers have an element of bureau over their employees except by having the law on the side of the employees, employers therefore need to think twice before discriminating in any(prenominal) clay. Organisations willing need to ensure that there is no unlawful or unfair discrimination. Employees are not stupid a company that behaves badly to one employee will do the same to another, and then one sidereal day it could be them.In the workplace there should be no form of discrimination. Alleged cases of discrimination poop be taken to an i ndustrial court of justice or a body such(prenominal) as the Race relations Board. The prejudiced person is capable of rationalising the situation in a such a way as to conclude that the person he or she met unique in some respects and is unlike stereotype. (McKenna 1994)Employee ViewWhen you counterbalance work you have several expectations. For one thing, you expect to get paid, unless you are a voluntary worker. You also expect to be paid a fair wage in relation to other deal in similar jobs and to receive money at specified times. You expect to be treated fairly and reasonably by both your boss and by others who work within the same organisation. You expect to work in a clean and safe environment and not be asked to undertake sloppy or dangerous jobs for which you have received no training or protective clothing. You expect to have holidays and to work a reasonable number of hours each week.As an Employee you have a right toTo be devoted a written statement of the terms and conditions of your employmentBe allowed to consume whether or not you join a trade unionnot to be discrimi... ...sconception. People are not equal not can they have equal opportunities. Native talents vary from person to person and it is an put-on to think otherwise. Moreover the human resource manager spends a expectant deal of time discriminating between one employee and another. Differences between employees collapse the terms of skills, attitudes, human relations, education and so on. People are not equal and therefore their opportunities for advancement or achievement of personal aims will differ markedly.The key issues for human resourcing is that the respect for people requires that they are apologise to stay and use their skills and abilities in the way they necessity. Organisations cannot provide equal opportunities but they can provide open access to selection processes and ensure that discrimination between candidates is not based on unfair or unlawful factors.Equ al opportunities is important in companies. First an organisation will want to ensure that it meets any statutory provision. Secondly, it may wish to project an orbit as a good employer to demonstrate that it puts faith in its people both to attract and to retain employees and also as part of a customer-oriented strategy.
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
Princely Power Niccolo Machiavellis The Prince contains a very unique character entitled Princely Virtues in which Machiavelli targets on a how-to approach in regards to becoming a prince. The instructional qualities of the novel lead its reader to compel in themselves an image of not the or so virtuous, but in Machiavellis eyes, the virtually effective prince. In the selections found in chapters 15-26, Machiavelli teaches his intended meretricious students the needful political skills that a prince must possess in order to follow his position on top. Machiavelli paints the illusionary portrait of the perfect prince. The prince must take great pains to keep up this virtuous front in order to maintain command as well as repute of his people. Even if the prince does not have a desired virtue, Machiavelli reasons that he must only appear to have certain virtues, and more importantly pick out when it is appropriate to display such virtues to benefit himself. The prince is obli gated to put on the necessary front in order to disguise himself as the most effective prince in an effort to maintain control. Machiavelli may on the come forward seem to argue that a ruler must focus on the positive end and employ whatever means necessary to light upon his desired result, maintaining power and control however, he only argues this to a point, in that location are limitations on a princes power. Machiavelli begins his section on princely virtues by emphasizing why a prince must in actuality array from being virtuous or ingenuous in order to evacuate coming to ruin among other work force who are evil look to be good is more important than being so. To emphasize this point, he says For there is such a difference between the vogue men live and the way they ought to live, th... ...tudes of men towards those in authority bring close to an understanding of sorts, which leads to sympathizing with the deceitfulness of Machiavellis prince. For a prince to lead men who are inherently evil he must think clearly about his actions, he will fail miserably, if he does not rise above his peoples intelligence. Yet, a wise prince will not allow his greedy desires to rule his good judgment. Without a watchful eye, he may stand in the way of attaining his own goals. By Machiavellian logic, even if a prince obtains his goals through involution of what may seem like vices, he must always entertain to keep up his good front. He cannot be justified in doing anything he pleases to maintain his power and control. Works Cited Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince in The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces (ed. Maynard Mack). hot York Norton, 2000. 1488-1497.
Analysis of Hills Like livid Elephants by Ernest Hemingway In Hills Like White Elephants Ernest Hemingway relies on symbolism to convey the theme of abortion. The symbolic material objects, as well as the strong symbolic characters, aid the readers understanding of the underlying theme. The material objects that Hemingway uses to convey the theme are beer, the expert and bad hillsides, and a railroad space between two tracks. The beer represents the couples, the American and the girls, usual routine activity they do together. This bothers the girl because thats whole they do look at things and analyse new drinks. This shows that the girl is tired of doing the same thing and wants to do something different, alike having a baby and a family, instead of fooling around all the time. She wants to stop being a girl and become a woman. Hemingway past presents the reader with two contrasting hills. One hill on star side of the station is dull, desolate, and barren it had no sha de and no trees, genuinely desert like. However, the other hill on the other side of the station is beautiful, plentiful in nature, and had fields of grain and tress along the banks of the Ebro River. withal on each side of the station where each hill is, there is a train track. These objects are symbolic devices prepare the reader in realizing that the characters are in a place of decision. The railroad station is a place of decision where maven must decide to go one way or the other. The t...
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
For years I n ever spoke to anyone about it. neer mentioned a thing to my parents or teachers or my classmates(Rodriguez 623). 1 shiver as I evince it-the most powerful sentence I stir ever come across. Scared, confused and resentful, I slam the book shut. still confronts me. non a whisper, not a murmur-I hear nothing. I am alone. The donn room is too dark, the single lamp too dim. Anxious and frightened I flop onto the bed and look out at the night sky. Not a star is to be seen-Just infinite dark space. My pulse quickens. all of a sudden the room is too hot-too small. I feel claustrophobic. I squeeze my eye shut, willing it to go away. It wont. My palms become sweaty and I feel nauseous. I charge my legs in the air, angrily lashing out at the haunting memories. With every(prenominal) kick the anger builds up, until tears of hopelessness and frustration roll humble my cheeks onto the pillow. I cant take it anymore, and I scream, Aaaaahhhh Its further an es advance I incite myself. but that is exactly the problem-it has made me confront feelings that I have assay to ignore and had kept hidden for a very long time. I close my eyes and the memories flood my head, threatening to haunt me.I am the scholarship boy to a certain limit (Rodriguez 622). 1 am an excellent student. Always successful, always confident. Needing to be the best. I study and read to succeed-to get a report card with nothing but As. I dont study to learn. I am a good student and even so at the same time, a bad one. I read, ace an exam, and thus forget about it, for my sole purpose is to succeed and get ahead. But this does not make me bookish- merely ambitious and overzealous for success. Education is the only way for you to succeed. Take advantage of every opportunity you get, my... .... It makes me feel ungratifying that my parents love me and miss me so much, yet I cannot fully go that. It took Rodriguez a lifetime to come to terms with that. I wonder if Ill ever have the co urage he had to took back. At this point I do feel like I have lost quite a bit of the cultural part of my childhood, but as yet I do not view it as a great loss. ace thing is for sure the essay forced me to confront my true feelings and has presumptuousness me a way to express myself and a way to deal with issues I would have never otherwise faced. At this point I cannot say whether I will try and recover my lost culture. I only hope that university does not create an even greater barrier and outdistance between my family and me.Works CitedRodriguez, Richard. Achievement of Desire. Ways of Reading. Ed. Tony Perrietto and Joan E. Feinberg. Boston Bantam Books, 1999. 620-639.